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Table 4 Distribution of TIMP2, TGFB1, MMP9, and TNF genotypes according to the existence and severity of emphysema changes

From: Association of genes of protease-antiprotease balance pathway to lung function and emphysema subtypes

Emphysema phenotype Genotype No radiologic changes* Radiologic changes OR (95% CI) Subnormal changes OR (95% CI) Pathological§ changes OR (95% CI)
   n (%) n (%)   n (%)   n (%)  
All TIMP2 rs2277698        
  G/G 462 (77.9) 270 (77.8) 1.0 180 (79.6) 1.0 90 (74.4) 1.0
  G/A or A/A 131 (22.1) 77 (22.2) 1.02 (0.72-1.44) 46 (20.4) 0.92 (0.62-1.38) 31 (25.6) 1.35 (0.83-2.22)
Centrilobular TGFB1 rs2241718        
  G/G 518 (72.8) 173 (77.6) 1.0 74 (71.2) 1.0 99 (83.2) 1.0
  G/A or A/A 194 (27.2) 50 (22.4) 0.76 (0.52-1.11) 30 (28.8) 1.08 (0.68-1.73) 20 (16.8) 0.53 (0.30-0.90)
  MMP9 rs3918242        
  C/C 519 (72.5) 171 (75.7) 1.0 74 (70.5) 1.0 97 (80.2) 1.0
  C/T or T/T 197 (27.5) 55 (24.3) 0.77 (0.53-1.12) 31 (29.5) 1.08 (0.68-1.72) 24 (19.8) 0.51 (0.30-0.86)
Paraseptal TIMP2 rs2277698        
  G/G 609 (78.9) 123 (73.2) 1.0 72 (78.3) 1.0 51 (67.1) 1.0
  G/A or A/A 163 (21.1) 45 (26.8) 1.41 (0.94-2.13) 20 (21.7) 1.04 (0.59-1.81) 25 (32.9) 1.94 (1.14-3.30)
  TNF rs1800629        
  G/G 605 (78.3) 111 (66.1) 1.0 61 (66.3) 1.0 50 (65.8) 1.0
  G/A or A/A 168 (21.7) 57 (33.9) 2.03 (1.38-2.98) 31 (33.7) 2.12 (1.30-3.48) 26 (34.2) 2.10 (1.24-3.56)
  1. Data are presented as n (%) except as noted.
  2. *Reference category.
  3. Adjusted for age, sex, pack-years and years of asbestos exposure.
  4. The changes were considered as subnormal if the emphysema subtype score was < 1 (< 2 in emphysema sum score).
  5. §The changes were considered as pathological if the emphysema subtype score was ≥ 1 (≥ 2 in emphysema sum score).