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Table 2 Predisposing factors associated with CAP recurrences in children with rCAP and controls, and corresponding odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI)

From: Clinical profile of recurrent community-acquired pneumonia in children

  Patients with rCAP   Healthy controls   Comparison between groups OR (95% CI)§
  (n = 146) % (n = 145) % p°°  
Predisposing factor       
Heart disease       
  Yes 3 2.1 0 0 0.25 -
  No 143 97.9 145 100.0   
Oro-motor incoordination/swal-lowing dysfunction       
  Yes 4 2.7 0 0 0.12 -
  No 142 97.3 145 100.0   
Primary ciliary dyskinesia       
  Yes 1 0.7 0 0 1.00 -
  No 145 99.3 145 100.0   
Primary or acquired immunodeficiency       
  Yes 2 1.4 0 0 0.50 -
  No 144 98.6 145 100.0   
GERD       
  Yes 31 21.2 20 13.8 0.69 1.33 (0.64-2.80)
  No 115 78.8 125 86.2   1§§
Overweight/obesity       
  BMI SD <1 112 76.7 119 82.1 0.76 1§§
  BMI SD ≥1 34 23.3 26 17.9   1.34 (0.58-1.97)
Wheezing       
  Yes 113 77.4 20 13.8 <0.001 32.00 (10.14-100.96)
  No 33 22.6 125 86.2   1§§
Chronic rhinosinusitis with post-nasal drip       
  Yes 105 71.9 6 4.1 <0.001 59.33 (24.48-144.97)
  No 41 28.1 139 95.9   1§§
Middle lobe syndrome       
  Yes 44 30.1 0 0   
  No 102 69.9 145 100.0 <0.001 -
Recurrent upper respiratory tract infections       
  Yes 99 67.8 29 20.0 <0.001 6.75 (3.68-12.37)
  No 47 32.2 116 80.0   1§§
Atopy/allergy       
  Yes 75 51.4 17 11.7 <0.001 7.44 (3.71-14.93)
  No 71 48.6 128 88.3   1§§
Asthma       
  Yes 46 31.5 8 5.5 <0.001 10.50 (3.77-29.28)
  No 100 68.5 137 94.5   1§§
  1. CI: confidence interval; BMI SD: body mass index standard deviation; GERD: gastroesophageal reflux diseae; OR: odds ratio. °°Chi-squared or Fisher’s test, as appropriate; rCAP: recurrent community-acquired pneumonia. §ORs from conditional logistic regression model, stratified by gender and age.§§reference category.