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Table 4 Hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for patient characteristics that explained emergency visits among the asthma patients by the Cox regression analyses

From: Long-term smoking increases the need for acute care among asthma patients: a case control study

  N of patiens 1 % of patients with emergency visits Crude HR 95% CI P-value Adjusted HR 95% CI P-value
Male gender 96 34.2%       
Female gender 248 65.8% 0.68 0.46-1.00 0.051 1.11 0.67-1.84 NS
Age until first emergency care visit or at evaluation (increase of 1 year)    1.02 1.00-1.03 0.051 1.01 0.99-1.03 NS
Duration of asthma         
<15 years 231 60.0% ref. 1.00    ref. 1.00   
>=15 years 100 40.0% 1.06 0.72-1.56 NS 1.29 0.82-2.03 NS
FEV1% of expected         
> 80% 164 42.7% ref. 1.00    ref. 1.00   
FEV1 65-80% 65 24.5% 1.90 1.16-3.11 0.011 1.57 0.91-2.71 NS
FEV1 < 65% 54 32.7% 2.90 1.85-4.54 <0.001 2.20 1.29-3.74 0.004
Smoking         
Never 174 47.3% ref. 1.00    ref. 1.00   
Ex-smoker 90 38.2% 1.75 1.14-2.66 0.10 1.86 1.30-3.06 0.015
Current 23 14.5% 3.94 2.20-7.07 <0.001 3.59 1.58-8.15 0.002
AQ_20         
score 12 or less 290 74.4% ref. 1.00    ref 1.00   
score 13 or more 54 25.6% 2.17 1.41-3.33 <0.001 2.51 1.52-4.15 <0.001
CVD         
No 304 83.8% ref. 1.00    ref. 1.00   
Yes 40 16.2% 1.47 0.89-2.44 NS 1.61 0.91-2.91 NS
Sinusitis         
No 299 83.9% ref. 1.00    ref 1.00   
Yes 47 16.1% 1.47 0.87-2.51 NS 1.10 0.60-2.02 NS
COPD as a second diagnosis         
No 298 76.9% ref. 1.00    ref 1.00   
Yes 48 23.1% 2.32 1.45-3.71 <0.001 0.60 0.29-1.23 NS