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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of patients in GOLD stages

From: Does the 2013 GOLD classification improve the ability to predict lung function decline, exacerbations and mortality: a post-hoc analysis of the 4-year UPLIFT trial

  GOLD A GOLD B GOLD C GOLD D P-value*
  (n = 356, 6%) (n = 1421, 25%) (n = 296, 5%) (n = 3557, 63%)  
Age 64.9 64.6 64.6 64.5 0.796
Male 81.4% 72.7% 85.8% 73.2% <0.001
BMI 25.9 26.9 25.7 25.7 <0.001
Current smoker 29.2% 34.3% 24.0% 28.5% <0.001
Pack-years 37.7 40.4 37.8 40.7 0.076
Time since diagnosis (years) 9.2 9.4 9.2 10.0 0.030
FEV1 (liters) 1.72 1.63 1.33 1.16 -
FEV1 (as a% of predicted) 60.3% 58.6% 46.5% 41.9% -
SGRQ 17.1 44.9 18.4 51.3 -
Respiratory medication at baseline (%)      
Short-acting anticholinergic 28.4% 39.4% 40.2% 50.3% <0.001
Long-acting anticholinergic 2.5% 1.6% 1.7% 2.0% 0.664
Short-acting β2-agonist 55.1% 62.5% 60.5% 73.9% <0.001
Long-acting β2-agonist 44.9% 52.2% 58.8% 64.1% <0.001
Inhaled corticosteroid 47.8% 54.7% 64.5% 66.0% <0.001
Oral corticosteroid 2.5% 4.6% 4.7% 11.0% <0.001
Theophylline compound 14.6% 21.0% 23.6% 31.9% <0.001
Mucolytic agent 3.1% 5.6% 4.7% 8.3% <0.001
Leuktriene-receptor antagonist 1.1% 2.0% 1.4% 4.3% <0.001
Supplemental oxygen 0% 0.6% 1.4% 3.0% <0.001
Number of different types of medication 1.75 2.04 2.24 2.52 <0.001
Number of co-morbidities 3.32 3.71 3.03 3.71 0.588
Number of courses of antibiotics 0.21 0.28 1.08 1.43 -
Number of courses of oral corticosteroids 0.097 0.146 0.55 0.91 -
Number of hospital admissions in previous year 0 0 0.21 0.37 -
  1. *Differences were tested using anova or χ2 test.