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Table 4 Annual rate of exacerbations (95% confidence interval), per GOLD

From: Does the 2013 GOLD classification improve the ability to predict lung function decline, exacerbations and mortality: a post-hoc analysis of the 4-year UPLIFT trial

Old stage P-value* New stage P-value* Substage P-value*
2 0.53 (0.50 - 0.55) - A 0.35 (0.29 - 0.41) - C1 0.47 (0.39 - 0.57) -
3 0.72 (0.69 - 0.76) <0.001 B 0.45 (0.42 - 0.48) 0.001 C2 0.55 (0.41-0.71) 0.37
4 0.80 (0.72 - 0.89) 0.09 C 0.58 (0.51 - 0.68) 0.001 C3 0.96 (0.70-1.24) 0.06
    D 0.74 (0.71 - 0.77) 0.001 D1 0.56 (0.53-0.60) -
       D2 0.75 (0.69-0.81) <0.001
       D3 0.97 (0.92-1.04) <0.001
AIC 22,697.09    22,571.27    22,417.35  
  1. *Wald test of difference with category immediately above. Overall Wald test of equal rates across stages: p < 0.001 for all models. C1/D1: classified in C/D because of lung function impairment; C2/D2: in C/D because of exacerbation history; C3/D3: because of lung function and exacerbation history.