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Table 6 Annual rates of lung function decline in millilitres, (95% confidence intervals), per GOLD stage

From: Does the 2013 GOLD classification improve the ability to predict lung function decline, exacerbations and mortality: a post-hoc analysis of the 4-year UPLIFT trial

Old stage P-value* New stage P-value* Substage P-value*
2 47 (44–50) - A 44 (38–52) - C1 32 (23–42) -
3 38 (36–41) <0.001 B 48 (45–52) 0.29 C2 47 (33–60) 0.11
4 26 (21–31) 0.002 C 38 (30–45) 0.01 C3 38 (16–53) 0.43
    D 39 (37–42) 0.74 D1 36 (33–39) -
       D2 46 (40–52) 0.003
       D3 38 (34–42) 0.04
AIC -30,229.05    -30,209.08    -30,212.52  
  1. *Wald test of difference with category immediately above. Overall Wald test of equal decline across stages: p < 0.001 for all models. C1/D1: classified in C/D because of lung function impairment; C2/D2: in C/D because of exacerbation history; C3/D3: because of lung function and exacerbation history.