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Table 4 Associations between increasing age (5-year intervals) and female sex and the respiratory symptoms wheeze, asthma and rhinitis at baseline (odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals) in total baseline population, population at 10-yrs follow-up and population at 20-yrs follow-up, and differences between these groups given as ratios of odds ratios (with bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals) in population at 10-yrs follow-up over total baseline population, and in population at 20-yrs follow-up over total baseline population a

From: Longterm follow-up in European respiratory health studies – patterns and implications

    Baseline population OR (95%CI) 10-yrs follow-up population OR (95%CI) Ratio of ORs (95%CI) b 20-yrs follow-up population OR (95%CI) Ratio of ORs (95%CI) b
Wheeze Age RHINE 1.00 (0.98, 1.02) 1.01 (0.98, 1.03) 1.01 (0.99, 1.02) 0.98 (0.95, 1.02) 0.98 (0.96, 1.01)
   Italian ECRHS 1.10 (1.03, 1.17) 1.10 (1.02, 1.19) 1.00 (0.96, 1.05) 1.15 (1.01, 1.31) 1.05 (0.93, 1.18)
   ISAYA 0.97 (0.91, 1.03) 0.96 (0.88, 1.05) 0.99 (0.94, 1.07) - -
  Sex RHINE 0.95 (0.90, 1.02) 0.99 (0.92, 1.07) 1.04 (1.00, 1.08) 0.96 (0.87, 1.05) 1.01 (0.94, 1.07)
   Italian ECRHS 0.76 (0.64, 0.90) 0.74 (0.60, 0.91) 0.97 (0.86, 1.10) 0.63 (0.44, 0.91) 0.83 (0.60, 1.15)
   ISAYA 0.81 (0.69, 0.96) 0.79 (0.62, 1.01) 0.98 (0.82, 1.16) - -
Asthma Age RHINE 0.98 (0.93, 1.02) 0.98 (0.93, 1.03) 1.00 (0.97, 1.03) 0.96 (0.90, 1.02) 0.98 (0.94, 1.03)
   Italian ECRHS 0.99 (0.90, 1.08) 0.94 (0.84, 1.05) 0.95 (0.89, 1.01) 0.88 (0.71, 1.08) 0.89 (0.73, 1.06)
   ISAYA 0.92 (0.83, 1.02) 0.95 (0.83, 1.09) 1.03 (0.93, 1.15) - -
  Sex RHINE 1.16 (1.02, 1.32) 1.21 (1.05, 1.40) 1.04 (0.97, 1.13) 1.13 (0.95, 1.35) 0.97 (0.87, 1.11)
   Italian ECRHS 0.84 (0.66, 1.08) 0.82 (0.60, 1.12) 0.98 (0.80, 1.18) 0.60 (0.34, 1.06) 0.71 (0.41, 1.18)
   ISAYA 1.08 (0.82, 1.41) 0.94 (0.64, 1.38) 0.87 (0.67, 1.16) - -
Rhinitis Age RHINE 0.97 (0.95, 0.99) 0.97 (0.95, 1.00) 1.00 (0.99, 1.02) 0.97 (0.94, 1.00) 1.00 (0.98, 1.02)
   Italian ECRHS 0.94 (0.89, 0.99) 0.93 (0.88, 0.99) 0.99 (0.96, 1.03) 0.91 (0.83, 1.01) 0.97 (0.89, 1.07)
   ISAYA 0.93 (0.88, 0.98) 0.91 (0.84, 0.98) 0.98 (0.93, 1.03) - -
  Sex RHINE 0.99 (0.92, 1.05) 1.01 (0.93, 1.09) 1.02 (0.98, 1.06) 1.01 (0.92, 1.11) 1.02 (0.96, 1.09)
   Italian ECRHS 0.93 (0.81, 1.07) 0.89 (0.75, 1.06) 0.96 (0.86, 1.06) 0.73 (0.55, 0.97) 0.78 (0.61, 1.01)
   ISAYA 0.85 (0.74, 0.99) 0.79 (0.64, 0.97) 0.93 (0.81, 1.06) - -
  1. aTotal baseline population: participants in 1989–92 in RHINE, 1991–93 in Italian ECRHS, 1998–2000 in ISAYA. 10-yrs follow up population: participants in 1999-2000 in RHINE and 1998–2000 in Italian ECRHS, 2008–09 in ISAYA. 20-yrs follow-up population: participants in 2010-12 in RHINE, 2008–09 in Italian ECRHS. bCorrected for inter-dependency between long-term participants and total baseline participants, by using a non-parametric bootstrap method. Significant associations between risk factors and respiratory symptoms are marked in bold font, as well as significant differences between long-term participants and all baseline participants.