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Table 6 Associations between smoking status and pack years and asthma at baseline (odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals) in total baseline population and population at 10-yrs follow-up, and differences between these groups given as ratios of odds ratios (with bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals) in population at 10-yrs follow-up over total baseline population a

From: Longterm follow-up in European respiratory health studies – patterns and implications

   Baseline population OR (95%CI) 10-yrs follow-up population OR (95%CI) Ratio of ORs (95%CI) b
Ex-smokers RHINE 1.05 (0.89, 1.22) 1.09 (0.91, 1.31) 1.04 (0.95, 1.14)
  Italian ECRHS 1.69 (1.01, 2.83) 1.93 (1.11, 3.36) 1.14 (0.94, 1.42)
  ISAYA 1.35 (0.94, 1.95) 1.47 (0.90, 2.40) 1.09 (0.75, 1.47)
Current smokers RHINE 1.08 (0.92, 1.25) 1.02 (0.84, 1.24) 0.94 (0.84, 1.07)
  Italian ECRHS 0.72 (0.40, 1.31) 0.67 (0.33, 1.36) 0.93 (0.60, 1.31)
  ISAYA 0.94 (0.68, 1.28) 0.71 (0.44, 1.15) 0.76 (0.51, 1.07)
1-10 pack years RHINE 1.04 (0.89, 1.21) 1.11 (0.93, 1.34) 1.07 (0.97, 1.18)
  Italian ECRHS 1.35 (0.80, 2.30) 1.59 (0.89, 2.84) 1.18 (0.91, 1.50)
  ISAYA 1.18 (0.88, 1.60) 1.09 (0.72, 1.67) 0.92 (0.67, 1.22)
10-20 pack years RHINE 1.04 (0.84, 1.30) 1.07 (0.82, 1.40) 1.03 (0.88, 1.18)
  Italian ECRHS 0.77 (0.35, 1.68) 0.72 (0.29, 1.76) 0.94 (0.48, 1.35)
  ISAYA 0.91 (0.56, 1.46) 0.84 (0.41, 1.69) 0.92 (0.49, 1.49)
20+ pack years RHINE 1.19 (0.91, 1.56) 1.05 (0.74, 1.48) 0.88 (0.69, 1.08)
  Italian ECRHS 0.68 (0.29, 1.61) 0.58 (0.21, 1.57) 0.85 (0.41, 1.26)
  ISAYA 0.71 (0.35, 1.47) 0.45 (0.14, 1.50) 0.63 (0.19, 1.43)
  1. aTotal baseline population: participants in 1999-2000 in RHINE and 1998–2000 in Italian ECRHS and ISAYA. 10-yrs follow-up population: participants in 2010–12 in RHINE, 2008–09 in Italian ECRHS and ISAYA. bCorrected for inter-dependency between long-term participants and total baseline participants, by using a non-parametric bootstrap method. Significant associations between risk factors and respiratory symptoms are marked in bold font, as well as significant differences between long-term participants and all baseline participants.