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Table 3 Independent predictors of chronic kidney disease, by Cox regression analysis

From: Bronchial asthma is associated with increased risk of chronic kidney disease

Variable Adjusted HR* (95% CI) Adjusted HR** (95% CI)
Asthma 1.13 (1.07-1.19) 1.40 (1.33-1.48)
Female reference reference
Male 1.16 (1.11-1.22) 1.16(1.10-1.22)‡
Age group   
18-29 reference reference
30-39 1.51 (1.30-1.76) 1.52 (1.31-1.77)
40-49 1.91 (1.66-2.19) 1.99 (1.73-2.28)
50-59 2.02 (1.76-2.31) 2.14 (1.86-2.45)
≥60 2.08 (1.83-2.38) 2.23 (1.96-2.55)
Co-morbidity   
Diabetes 1.42 (1.33-1.51) 1.42 (1.33-1.52)
Hypertension 15.52 (14.18-16.99) 15.24 (13.92-16.68)
Hyperlipidemia 1.55 (1.45-1.65) 1.53 (1.43-1.64)
Heart Disease 1.84 (1.71-1.98) 1.92 (1.78-2.06)
Obesity 1.3 (1.07-1.58) 1.39 (1.14-1.69)
Medication   
Steroid (used in 56.2% asthma subjects)   0.50(0.47-0.53)
  1. Note: p < 0.05 for comparison between patients with asthma and without asthma; p < 0.001 for comparison between patients with asthma and without asthma.
  2. HR*, each variable was adjusted for every other variable listed except for medication.
  3. HR**, each variable was adjusted for every other variable listed.