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Table 4 Standardized estimates for control variables genotypes and parental smoking exposure on the intercepts and slopes of cue-induced craving and cognitive craving

From: Parental smoke exposure and the development of nicotine craving in adolescent novice smokers: the roles of DRD2, DRD4, and OPRM1 genotypes

  Intercept cue-induced craving Linear slope cue-induced craving Intercept cognitive craving Linear slope cognitive craving
Step 1     
 Sex .05 .19 .10 .10
 Education -.05 .10 .03 .06
 Ethnicity .05 -.08 .07 -.11
 Age of smoking initiation -.13 -.19 -.08 -.18
 Baseline smoking .81** -.31 .72** -.35
DRD2 Taq1A .15 -.11 .22* -.21
DRD4 48 bp VNTR .06 -.06 .09 -.14
OPRM1 A118G .08 .01 .09 .02
 Parental smoke exposure .07 .08 .12 -.01
 Explained variance (R2) 76 % 21 % 65 % 27 %
Step 2     
DRD2**Parental smoke exposure .55 -.76** .52 -.96**
DRD4**Parental smoke exposure .32 .25 .49 -.08
OPRM1**Parental smoke exposure .02 -.30 -.20 -.18
  1. Gender: 0 = male and 1 = female, Ethnicity: 0 = Dutch and 1 = Not Dutch
  2. *p = .01, **p < .001