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Table 1 Characteristics of patients with or without risk factors for aspiration

From: The significance of oral streptococci in patients with pneumonia with risk factors for aspiration: the bacterial floral analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid

Variables Presence of risk Absence of risk p value
factors for aspiration factors for aspiration
(n=83) (n=94)
Age, years, mean±SD 76.6 (9.5) 64.5 (19.4) <0.001
Gender, male; n (%) 58 (69.9) 48 (51.1) 0.011
HCAP; n (%) 59 (71.1) 35 (37.2) <0.001
 Hospitalization for >2 days in the preceding 90 days 34 (41.0) 27 (28.7) 0.087
 Residence in a nursing home or extended care facility 29 (34.9) 5 (5.3) <0.001
 Home infusion therapy (including antibiotics) 10 (12.0) 8 (8.5) 0.437
 Chronic dialysis during the preceding 30 days 0 (0.0) 1 (1.1) 0.346
 Home wound care 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
BMI, mean±SDa 19.6 (4.8) 20.7 (4.5) 0.038
ECOG PS, median (IQR) 2 (0.5–3.5) 1 (0.5–1.5) <0.001
 0–1; n (%) 28 (33.7) 73 (77.7) <0.001
 2; n (%) 22 (26.5) 12 (12.8)  
 3–4; n (%) 33 (39.8) 9 (9.6) <0.001
Smoking; n, (%)b    
 Smoker 7 (10.0) 9 (10.7)  
 Ex-smoker 30 (42.9) 30 (35.7)  
 Non smoker 33 (47.1) 45 (53.6)  
B.Ic 493.7 (606.1) 449.4 (641.7) 0.454
Comorbidity; n, (%)    
Chronic respiratory disease 22 (26.5) 38 (40.4) 0.051
 COPD 11 (13.3) 23 (24.5) 0.059
 Bronchiectasis 6 (7.2) 12 (12.8) 0.224
 Lung cancer 7 (8.4) 3 (3.2) 0.132
 Interstitial pneumonia 6 (7.2) 9 (9.6) 0.576
 Cerebrovascular disease 30 (36.1) 0 (0.0)
 Neuromuscular diseases 19 (22.9) 0 (0.0)
 Dementia 26 (31.3) 0 (0.0)
 Pharyngeal disorder 7 (8.4) 0 (0.0)
 Gastroesophageal disorder 27 (32.5) 0 (0.0)
 Diabetes mellitus 11 (13.3) 22 (23.4) 0.084
 Malignancy excluding lung cancer 26 (31.3) 18 (19.1) 0.060
 Congestive heart failure 8 (9.6) 8 (8.5) 0.794
 Chronic kidney disease 2 (2.4) 5 (5.3) 0.450
 Chronic liver disease 6 (7.2) 2 (2.1) 0.103
 RA or Sjogren’s syndrome 0 (0.0) 9 (9.6) 0.004
 Collagen disease 5 (6.0) 7 (7.4) 0.707
 Psychiatric disease 2 (2.4) 4 (4.3) 0.686
Medications; n (%)    
 Sleeping medications 17 (20.5) 10 (10.6) 0.07
 Glucocorticoids (PSL>5 mg/day) 11 (13.3) 7 (7.4) 0.202
 Immunosuppressive agent 3 (3.6) 8 (9.5) 0.178
 Antipsychotic drugs 7 (8.4) 1 (1.1) 0.027
 Antidepressant 3 (3.6) 6 (6.4) 0.504
History of pneumonia within the previous 1 year; n (%) 24 (28.9) 15 (16.0) 0.038
Respiratory failure; n, (%) 31 (37.3) 30 (31.9) 0.448
Clinical parameters; n, (%)    
 Orientation disturbance (confusion) 21 (25.3) 8 (8.5) 0.003
 Systolic BP<90 mmHg or diastolic BP<60 mmHg 5 (6.0) 2 (2.1) 0.255
 Body temperature<35 °C or >40 °C 4 (4.8) 1 (1.1) 0.188
 Pulse rate>125 beats/min 5 (6.0) 10 (10.6) 0.271
Laboratory findings    
 BUN>10.7 mmol/L 28 (33.7) 24 (25.5) 0.232
 Glucose>13.9 mmol/L 3 (3.6) 7 (7.4) 0.339
 Hematocrit<30 % 16 (19.3) 6 (6.4) 0.010
 Albumin, g/dl mean ± SDd 3.05 (0.61) 3.29 (0.57) 0.011
Radiographic findings; n, (%)e    
 Bilateral lung involvement 54 (65.1) 50 (53.8) 0.128
 Upper lobe dominant opacity 14 (16.9) 20 (21.5) 0.437
 Lower lobe opacity 54 (65.1) 52 (55.9) 0.216
 anterior dominant opacity 8 (9.6) 14 (15.1) 0.278
 posterior dominant opacity 67 (80.7) 58 (62.4) 0.007
 Gravity-dependent opacity 67 (80.7) 67 (72.0) 0.178
 Thickening of bronchovascular bundles 37 (44.6) 50 (53.8) 0.224
 Pleural effusion 12 (14.5) 19 (20.3) 0.299
PSI score; mean±SD 112.0 (40.3) 81.0 (46.3) <0.001
 I-III 25 (30.1) 57 (60.6)  
 VI-V 53 (69.9) 37 (39.4) <0.001
In hospital mortality 6 (7.2) 6 (6.4) 0.823
  1. Definition of abbreviations: SD standard devision, CAP community-acquired pneumonia, HCAP healthcare-associated pneumonia, BMI body mass index, ECOG PS eastern cooperative oncology group performance status, BI brinkman index, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, RA rheumatoid Arthritis, PSI pneumonia severity index
  2. aBMI, bsmoking, cB.I, dserum albumin and, eradiographic findings were evaluated in 142, 154, 153, 168, and 176 patients, respectively