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Table 2 Association of clinical sign and symptoms, physical and radiologic findings between children with recovery of a foreign body during bronchoscopy (FBA positive) and those without FBA (FBA negative) (univariate logistic regression analysis)

From: A new clinical algorithm scoring for management of suspected foreign body aspiration in children

  FBA positive FBA negative Unadjusted odds ratio (95%CI) P-value*
Clinical signs and symptoms (n = 300)
 Witnessed choking 65 (71.4%) 134 (64.1%) 1.39 (0.82, 2.39) 0.219
 Cough 72 (79.1%) 144 (68.9%) 1.71 (0.95, 3.07) 0.072
 Noisy breathing/stridor/ dysphonia 21 (23.1%) 23 (11%) 2.43 (1.26, 4.66) 0.008
 Dyspnea 32 (35.2%) 57 (27.3%) 1.45 (0.85, 2.45) 0.170
 Cyanosis 11 (12.1%) 46 (22%) 0.49 (0.24, 0.99) 0.047
 New onset wheezing/ recurrent/persistent wheeze 20 (22%) 14 (6.7%) 3.92 (1.89, 8.18) 0.0001
 Recurrent and/or persistent respiratory infection/ recurrent pneumonia 0 (0%) 2 (1%) n.a 0.999
 Vomiting 14 (15.4%) 35 (16.7%) 0.90 (0.46, 1.78) 0.769
 Fever 21 (23.1%) 37 (17.7%) 1.40 (0.76, 2.55) 0.280
 Others 8 (8.8%) 26 (12.4%) 0.68 (0.29, 1.56) 0.362
Radiological findings (n = 242)
 Abnormal 63 (82.9%) 87 (52.4%) 4.40 (2.25, 8.60) 0.0001
 Unilateral hyperinflation right/left side 31 (40.8%) 34 (20.5%) 2.68 (1.48, 4.84) 0.001
 Bilateral hyperinflation 10 (13.2%) 20 (12%) 1.11 (0.49, 2.49) 0.808
 Right/left/bilateral infiltrates 10 (13.2%) 11 (6.6%) 2.14 (0.87, 5.27) 0.100
 Radio-opaque FB 4 (5.3%) 0 (0%)   0.009
 Collapse/Consolidation 6 (7.9%) 11 (6.6%) 1.21 (0.43, 3.40) 0.720
 Others 2 (2.6%) 7 (4.2%) 0.61 (0.13, 3.03) 0.549
Physical examination findings (n = 290)
 Normal 21 (23.3%) 112 (56%) 0.24 (0.14, 0.42) 0.0001
 Unilateral reduced entry Right/left side 53 (58.9%) 54 (27%) 3.87 (2.30, 6.54) 0.0001
 Stridor 1 (1.1%) 3 (1.5%) 0.74 (0.08, 7.19) 0.794
 Wheezing 29 (32.2%) 37 (18.5%) 2.09 (1.19, 3.70) 0.011
 Bilateral reduced air entry 2 (2.2%) 11 (5%) 0.43 (0.09, 2.01) 0.285
 Retractions 9 (10%) 15 (7.5%) 1.37 (0.58, 3.26) 0.476
 Tachypnea 5 (5.6%) 3 (1.5%) 3.86 (0.90, 16.53) 0.068
 Crackles 12 (13.3%) 21 (10.5%) 1.31 (0.62, 2.80) 0.483
 Others 4 (4.4%) 3 (1.5%) 3.05 (0.67, 13.94) 0.149
  1. In 58 cases Chest-X-ray was not done/and or not reported and hence % computation was based on n = 242
  2. In 10 cases physical exam findings were not documented and thus % computation was based on n = 290
  3. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  4. *Pearson Chi-square and Fisher exact test, logistic regression analysis