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Table 3 Multivariate Cox regression analyses with forward stepwise variable selection method for development of interstitial lung disease during the 9-year follow-up period

From: Risk factors for interstitial lung disease: a 9-year Nationwide population-based study

Risk factor Males Females
HR (95% CI) P value HR (95% CI) P value
Age group (years) (reference: 40–49)
 50–59 2.3 (1.9–2.7) <  0.001 1.4 (1.1–1.7) 0.004
 60–69 4.6 (3.9–5.5) <  0.001 3.3 (2.6–4.1) <  0.001
  ≥70 8.1 (6.7–9.7) <  0.001 5.4 (4.3–6.7) <  0.001
Malignancy 1.1 (1.0–1.3) 0.045 1.0 (0.8–1.2) 0.68
Diabetes (reference: no) 1.2 (1.0–1.3) 0.006 0.9 (0.7–1.1) 0.38
COPD (reference: no) 1.8 (1.5–2.2) <  0.001 1.9 (1.5–2.4) <  0.001
History of tuberculosis (reference: no) 1.5 (1.2–2.0) <  0.001 1.8 (1.2–2.6) 0.001
History of pneumonia (reference: no) 1.5 (1.1–2.0) 0.002 1.7 (1.2–2.3) 0.001
Hepatitis C (reference: no) 1.3 (0.8–2.1) 0.26 2.1 (1.1–3.8) 0.014
GERD (reference: no) 1.0 (0.9–1.3) 0.38 1.3 (1.0–1.6) 0.013
Smoker (reference: never smoker) 1.2 (1.1–1.4) <  0.001 1.5 (1.1–2.0) 0.005
  1. HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, GERD gastroesophageal reflux disorder