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Table 4 Frequency of comorbidities reported at inclusion

From: Gender differences at presentation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in Sweden

 Total Never smoker Ex-smoker 
MaleFemaleMaleFemaleMaleFemale
(N = 250)(N = 98)OR (95%CI)(N = 64)(N = 39)OR (95%CI)(N = 169)(N = 53)OR (95%CI)
Single Comorbidity
Arterial hypertension (N, %)84 (34)31 (32)1.09 (0.66–1.80)18 (28)8 (21)1.52 (0.59–3.92)62 (37)20 (38)0.96 (0.51–1.81)
Gastroesophageal reflux (N, %)74 (30)39 (40)0.64 (0.39–1.04)16 (25)20 (51)0.32 (0.14–0.74)55 (33)17 (32)1.02 (0.53–1.98)
Other cardiovasculara (N, %)76 (30)10 (10)3.84 (1.89–7.80)18 (28)5 (13)2.70 (0.90–7.88)54 (32)5 (9)4.51 (1.70–12.0)
Coronary heart disease (N, %)59 (24)8 (8)3.48 (1.59–7.58)14 (22)1 (3)10.6 (1.34–84.5)43 (25)6 (11)2.70 (1.07–6.70)
Diabetes (N, %)38 (15)14 (14)1.08 (0.55–2.09)6 (9)3 (8)1.24 (0.29–5.28)30 (18)10 (19)0.93 (0.42–2.05)
Cancer (N, %)20 (8)13 (13)0.57 (0.27–1.19)4 (6)5 (13)0.45 (0.11–1.80)15 (9)7 (13)0.64 (0.25–1.66)
Thyroid diseasesb (N, %)11 (4)11 (11)0.36 (0.15–0.87)4 (6)2 (5)1.23 (0.22–7.07)6 (4)8 (15)0.21 (0.07–0.63)
Sleep apnea (N, %)18 (7)4 (4)1.82 (0.60–5.53)4 (6)3 (8)0.80 (0.17–3.78)13 (8)1 (2)4.33 (0.55–33.9)
Asthma (N, %)5 (2)10 (10)0.18 (0.06–0.54)3 (5)8 (21)0.19 (0.05–0.77)2 (1)2 (4)0.31 (0.04–2.22)
COPD (N, %)8 (3)2 (2)1.59 (0.33–7.61)0 (0)0 (0)7 (4)1 (2)2.25 (0.27–18.7)
Osteoporosis (N, %)1 (0.4)5 (5)0.10 (0.01–0.65)1 (2)3 (8)0.19 (0.02–1.90)0 (0)2 (4)0.06 (0.003–1.30)
Multiple comorbidities
1- comorbidity (N, %)77 (31)31 (32)0.96 (0.58–1.59)15 (23)14 (36)0.69 (0.28–1.66)59 (35)14 (26)1.50 (0.75–2.97)
2-comorbidties (N, %)59 (24)31 (32)0.67 (0.40–1.12)13 (20)13 (33)0.51 (0.21–1.26)42 (25)16 (30)0.76 (0.39–1.51)
3-comorbidties (N, %)33 (13)11 (11)1.20 (0.58–2.50)7 (11)6 (15)0.68 (0.21–2.18)26 (15)4 (8)2.23 (0.74–6.70)
4-comorbidties (N, %)20 (8.0)4 (4.0)2.04 (0.68–6.14)5 (8)0 (0)7.30 (0.39–136)14 (8)4 (8)1.11 (0.35–3.52)
5-comorbidties (N, %)4 (2.0)1 (1.0)1.60 (0.17–14.3)1 (2)0 (0)1.87 (0.07–47.0)2 (1)1 (2)0.62 (0.06–7.01)
  1. OR Odds ratio, 95% CI 95% confidence interval, COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  2. aOther cardiovascular disease: Atrial fibrillation and Heart failure
  3. bThyroid diseases: hypo−/hyperthyroidism