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Table 3 Blood gas and electrolyte parameters (A), and levels of lactate in serum and lung tissue homogenates (B), and albumin in lung tissue homogenates (C) of LPS-challenged, vehicle-treated (LPS + vehicle); LPS-challenged, SPA4 peptide-treated (LPS + SPA4 peptide); and unchallenged and untreated C57BL6 mice. The numbers represent the mean (SEM) values derived from 6 to 16 mice per group. The p values (*p < 0.05, **p < 0.005, ***p < 0.0005, ****p < 0.0001 versus unchallenged, untreated; #p < 0.05 versus LPS + vehicle) were determined by ANOVA with Tukey’s post-hoc analysis

From: Lung and general health effects of Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4)-interacting SPA4 peptide

(A) Blood gas and electrolytesUnchallenged, untreatedLPS + vehicleLPS + SPA4 peptide
pCO2 mmHg58.44 (3.28)79.27 (3.77)**74 (4.36)*
HCO3 mmol/L24.52 (0.61)28.25 (0.39)*27.48 (1.49)
tCO2 mmol/L26.3 (0.68)30.68 (0.42)*29.74 (1.60)
pO2 mmHg37.67 (3.77)49.2 (4.84)43.25 (3.30)
tHB g/dL15.12 (0.25)15.02 (0.25)14.35 (0.69)
AnGAP mmol/L14.87 (0.26)8.91 (0.53)*11.76 (2.21)
Base Excess (mmol/L)3.61 (0.63)3.11 (0.61)3.3 (1.20)a
Blood pH7.267 (0.02)7.199 (0.02)*7.212 (0.01)
Na+ mmol/L146.4 (0.53)141.2 (0.52)****142.6 (0.51)***
K+ mmol/L4.84 (0.18)4.10 (0.17)*4.16 (0.17)*
Cl mmol/L112.3 (0.49)108.2 (0.66)**108.2 (0.98)**
(B) LactateUnchallenged, untreatedLPS + vehicleLPS + SPA4 peptide
In serum (pmol/μl)3081 (190.3)5647 (343.2)****4684 (239.4)***, #
In lung (nmol/g lung)6931 (1646)19,420 (7108)10,439 (2248)
(C) AlbuminUnchallenged, untreatedLPS + vehicleLPS + SPA4 peptide
In lung (μg/g lung)10,525 (761.1)15,882 (997.6)***13,451 (708.8)
  1. aall values for base excess were negative except for two mice