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Table 3 Purported triggers of SR

From: Spontaneous regression of ALK fusion protein-positive non-small cell lung carcinoma: a case report and review of the literature

Mechanism Potential Explanations
Biopsy • Damage to supplying vasculature [29]
• Immune response triggered by local inflammation [29]
Immunological • NK activation [56]
• Infection-related immune upregulation [57]
• CD8+ cell infiltration [58]
Hormonal • Down-regulation of tumour proliferation pathways [59]
Intrinsic regression • Upregulation of apoptotic pathways [60]
• Return of tumour cell differentiation [61]
• Removal of carcinogen [62]