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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of patients with Covid-19 when stratified by the presence of AKI during hospitalization

From: The incidence, risk factors and prognosis of acute kidney injury in severe and critically ill patients with COVID-19 in mainland China: a retrospective study

Characteristic Total
(N = 210)
AKI
(n = 92)
No AKI
(n = 118)
P value
Age, median (IQR), yrs 64 (56–71) 65 (59–73) 62 (54–70) 0.021
Sex     0.186
 Female 79 (37.6) 30 (32.6) 49 (41.5)
 Male 131 (62.4) 62 (67.4) 69 (58.5)
Severity of Covid-19     < 0.001
 Severe 60 (28.6) 2 (2.2) 58 (49.2)
 Critical 150 (71.4) 90 (97.8) 60 (50.9)
Comorbidities
 Hypertension 98 (46.7) 45 (48.9) 53 (44.9) 0.565
 Diabetes 44 (21.0) 23 (25.0) 21 (17.8) 0.203
 Cardiovascular diseases 23 (11.0) 9 (9.8) 14 (11.9) 0.632
 Malignancy 14 (6.7) 10 (10.9) 4 (3.4) 0.031
 Cerebrovascular disease 12 (5.7) 6 (6.52) 6 (5.1) 0.656
 Chronic Kidney Disease 10 (4.8) 6 (6.52) 4 (3.4) 0.290
 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 5 (2.4) 2 (2.2) 3 (2.5) NA
 Connective Tissue Disease 2 (1.0) 2 (2.2) 0 (0.0) NA
Complication
 Sepsis 112 (53.3) 72 (78.3) 40 (33.9) < 0.001
 Right heart failurea 44 (21.0) 28 (30.4) 16 (13.6) 0.003
 Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation 32 (15.2) 27 (29.4) 5 (4.24) < 0.001
Treatment
 Drug with Nephrotoxicity 52 (24.8) 38 (41.3) 14 (11.9) < 0.001
 Respiratory support: COT 41 (19.5) 2 (2.2) 39 (33.1) < 0.001
 Respiratory support: HFN 22 (10.5) 6 (6.5) 16 (13.6) 0.099
 Respiratory support: NIV 29 (13.8) 4 (4.4) 25 (21.2) < 0.001
 Respiratory support: IMV 118 (56.2) 80 (87.0) 38 (32.2) < 0.001
Laboratory Findingsb
 Baseline serum creatinine (μmol/L) 69.7 (55.9–85.9) 75.5 (59.8–102.8) 67.1 (54.3–78.4) 0.002
 Maximum PaCO2 (mmHg) 52.0 (39.0–73.8) 69.5 (46.8–81.3) 45.0 (38.3–57.5) < 0.001
 Maximum PaCO2 > = 60 mmHg 82 (39.05) 55 (59.78) 27 (22.88) < 0.001
 Minimum PaO2/FiO2 ratio (mmHg) 109.0 (65.0–207.7) 73.0 (62.8–138.6) 169.0 (74.3–217.5) < 0.001
 Minimum PaO2/FiO2 ratio < 150 mmHg 116 (55.24) 70 (76.09) 46 (38.98) < 0.001
 Maximum IL-6 (pg/ml) 14.3 (9.9–24.9) 17.9 (12.6–33.5) 12.3 (8.9–19.6) < 0.001
 Maximum serum ferritin (ng/ml) 1607.8 (786.2–2001.0) 2001.0 (1329.6–2001.0) 985.4 (581.8–2001.0) < 0.001
  1. a Right heart failure: defined according to the clinical diagnosis and ultrasonographic manifestations. & Drugs with Nephrotoxicity: mainly included aminoglycosides, glycopeptides and colistin. b, Data were collected before the development of AKI among patients who had developed AKI; The most abnormal data during hospitalization were presented among patients who did not develop AKI. PaCO2: arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide; PaO2/FiO2 ratio: the ratio between the arterial partial pressure of oxygen and the inspiratory concentration of oxygen; Data in bold indicated the comparisons with statistical significance