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Table 3 Differences (95% CI) in COPD-related outcomes for former and current smokers in study population residing in low food access areas versus non-low food access areas

From: Disparities in access to food and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-related outcomes: a cross-sectional analysis

  Adjusteda
Mean difference or odds ratio (95% CI) P value
Lung function
 FEV%Pred − 4.40 (− 6.78, − 2.03)  < 0.001
 COPD (odds ratio) 1.42 (1.13, 1.78) 0.002
Quality of life/respiratory symptoms
 CAT 0.70 (− 0.03, 1.43) 0.060
 mMRC 0.10 (0.01, 0.20) 0.030
 SGRQ total 3.30 (1.52, 5.10)  < 0.001
 6-min walk distance (meters) − 3.03 (− 13.7, 7.59) 0.576
Chest CT metric
 % Emphysema (− 950) 1.22 (0.33, 2.12) 0.007
 % air trapping (− 856) 3.23 (1.45, 5.01)  < 0.001
Exacerbations, last 12 months
 Any (OR)b 1.24 (0.98, 1.58) 0.072
 Severe (OR)b 1.52 (1.10, 2.10) 0.012
  1. Bold values indicate statistical significance at the p < 0.05 level
  2. aAdjusted for neighborhood poverty, clinical centers, age, sex, race, education, income, marital status, rural status, BMI, smoking status, and pack years
  3. bCoefficient represents odds ratio