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Table 2 Hazard ratios of single CID events and composite CID events for CID + patients versus CID- patients

From: One‐year clinically important deterioration and long‐term clinical course in Japanese patients with COPD: a multicenter observational cohort study

Risk factor Moderate exacerbation Severe exacerbation All-cause mortality Death from respiratory diseases
Hazard ratio P-value Hazard ratio P-value Hazard ratio P-value Hazard ratio P-value
  (95 % CI)   (95 % CI)   (95 % CI)   (95 % CI)  
Model 1
Single CID components
FEV1 decrease (≥ 100 mL) 0.78 (0.47−1.26) 0.32 0.64 (0.25−1.44) 0.29 1.28 (0.84−1.91) 0.25 1.23 (0.63−2.29) 0.53
FEV1 decrease (≥ 200 mL) 0.59 (0.23−1.26) 0.19 0.98 (0.23−2.81) 0.97 1.39 (0.74−2.42) 0.29 1.77 (0.72−3.80) 0.20
SGRQ increase (≥ 4 units) 1.01 (0.61−1.62) 0.97 1.78 (0.82−3.74) 0.14 1.33 (0.88−1.99) 0.17 1.67 (0.88−3.08) 0.11
SGRQ increase (≥ 8 units) 1.28 (0.70−2.19) 0.41 2.88 (1.28−6.14) 0.01 1.39 (0.86−2.18) 0.17 2.28 (1.11−4.43) 0.03
Exacerbation 2.87 (1.64−4.83) 0.0004 1.09 (0.32−2.88) 0.87 1.17 (0.65−1.97) 0.59 1.00 (0.38−2.21) 1.00
Composite CID
CID using D1 1.44 (0.90−2.34) 0.13 1.21 (0.57−2.73) 0.63 1.52 (1.006−2.34) 0.047 1.96 (1.02−4.02) 0.04
CID using D2 1.78 (1.12−2.81) 0.01 2.09 (0.98−4.53) 0.06 1.48 (0.997−2.20) 0.052 1.87 (0.9997−3.50) 0.0501
Model 2
Single CID components
FEV1 decrease (≥ 100 mL) 0.79 (0.48–1.26) 0.32 0.62 (0.24–1.40) 0.26 1.27 (0.84–1.90) 0.26 1.25 (0.64–2.33) 0.50
FEV1 decrease (≥ 200 mL) 0.60 (0.23–1.28) 0.21 1.03 (0.24–2.96) 0.96 1.40 (0.74–2.44) 0.28 1.79 (0.72–3.83) 0.19
SGRQ increase (≥ 4 units) 0.93 (0.56–1.50) 0.77 1.65 (0.76–3.49) 0.20 1.28 (0.84–1.92) 0.24 1.46 (0.76–2.74) 0.25
SGRQ increase (≥ 8 units) 1.10 (0.60–1.89) 0.75 2.59 (1.15–5.53) 0.02 1.33 (0.82–2.10) 0.24 1.99 (0.95–3.91) 0.07
Exacerbation 2.25 (1.28–3.82) 0.006 0.81 (0.23–2.18) 0.70 1.12 (0.62–1.89) 0.70 0.85 (0.32–1.93) 0.72
Composite CID
CID using D1 1.35 (0.85–2.20) 0.21 1.07 (0.50–2.44) 0.86 1.48 (0.98–2.28) 0.07 1.80 (0.93–3.71) 0.08
CID using D2 1.54 (0.97–2.44) 0.07 1.79 (0.84–3.89) 0.13 1.44 (0.96–2.14) 0.08 1.66 (0.88–3.14) 0.12
  1. CID, clinically important deterioration; CI, confidence interval; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 s; SGRQ, St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire; D1, Definition 1; D2, Definition 2
  2. Model 1: Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, sex, and smoking status. Model 2: Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, sex, smoking status, and post-bronchodilator FEV1