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Table 2 Prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma according to the participants’ characteristics and risk factors

From: Asthma prevalence and associated factors among lebanese adults: the first national survey

  Physician-diagnosed asthma
  Bivariate analysis Multivariable analysis-N = 715
  P (95% CI) P value aOR (95% CI) P value
  6.7 (5.08.7)    
Gender     
Males 6.9 (4.5–10) 0.8  
Females 6.5 (4.2–9.5)    
Age classes     
[16–35] 8.1 (5.3–11.7) 0.1 Reference  
[35–55] 7.0 (4.3–10.6)   1.01 (0.46; 2.19) 0.9
55 or above 2.9 (0.8–7.2)   0.56 (0.17; 1.87) 0.3
Body mass index (BMI)     
< 25 kg/m2 7.1 (4.5–10.6) 0.9  
[25–30] kg/m2 6.5 (4.0–9.9)    
≥ 30 kg/m2 5.7 (2.1–11.9)    
Residence     
Beirut 5.9 (0.1–28.7) 0.6  
Bekaa and Baalback 3.1 (0.9–7.8)    
Mount Lebanon 7.3 (4.4–11.3)    
Nabatieh 5.0 (0.1–24.9)    
North and Akkar 7.5 (4.1–12.5)    
South 8.0 (4.0–13.8)    
Marital status     
Single 8.4 (5.3–12.4) 0.4  
Married 6.0 (3.9–8.7)    
Widowed/divorced 4.3 (0.5–14.5)    
Education     
≤ Complementary 2.0 (0.4–5.8) 0.04 Reference  
Secondary 7.7 (4.4–12.1)   4.45 (1.14; 17.3) 0.03
University 7.9 (5.3–11.1)   3.83 (0.99; 14.8) 0.05
Occupation     
Student 7.2 (2.4–16.1) 0.4  
Currently working 7.1 (5.0–9.9)    
Not working 5.9 (2.7–10.9)    
Retired 0    
CCS     
No 7.3 (5.2–9.9) 0.3  
Yes 5.3 (2.7–9.0)    
CWS     
No 7.9 (5.9–10.4) 0.009 Reference 0.01
Yes 2.0 (0.4–5.7)   0.17 (0.04; 0.67)  
PCS     
No 6.4 (4.7–8.4) 0.2  
Yes 11.9 (4.0–25.6)    
PWS     
No 6.3 (4.6–8.3) 0.01 Reference 0.4
Yes 21.1 (6.1–45.6)   1.95 (0.46; 8.35)  
Indoor allergens     
No 6.1 (3.5–9.8) 0.7  
Yes 7.0 (4.9–9.7)    
Indoor air pollution     
No 5.6 (2.7–10) 0.5  
Yes 7.0 (5.0–9.5)    
Outdoor allergens     
No 5.7 (4.0–7.8) 0.01 Reference 0.2
Yes 12.5 (6.8–20.4)   1.77 (0.75; 4.17)  
Outdoor air pollution     
No 6.4 (3.8–9.9) 0.8  
Yes 6.9 (4.7–9.6)    
Fruits and vegetables     
Once at least daily 5.8 (4.0–8.2) 0.09 Reference  
2–3 times/week 7.1 (3.5–12.7)   0.89 (0.36; 2.24) 0.8
< than once/week 12.9 (6.1–23.0)   2.28 (0.90; 5.77) 0.08
Family history of chronic respiratory disease     
No 4.5 (3.0–6.5)  < 0.001 Reference 0.007
Yes 16.7 (10.7–24.1)   2.78 (1.32; 5.83)  
Lung problems during childhood     
No 4.4 (3.0–6.2)  < 0.001 Reference  < 0.001
Yes 35.8 (23.1–50.2)   15.9 (7.02; 35.8)  
Allergic rhinitis     
No 3.4 (2.0–5.4)  < 0.001 Reference  < 0.001
Yes 13.4 (9.3–18.4)   4.19 (2.03; 8.65)  
  1. Bold numbers represent significant results (p < 0.05)
  2. R2 = 35.0; Hosmer & Lemshow–P value = 0.468; 93.6% of the participants correctly classified
  3. P prevalence, aOR adjusted Odds ratio, CI confidence interval, CCS current cigarette smokers, CWS current waterpipe smokers, PCS previous cigarette smokers, PWS previous waterpipe smokers