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Table 3 Univariate and multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of potential risk factors for EBUS-GS-TBB-related pneumothorax

From: Predictive risk factors for pneumothorax after transbronchial biopsy using endobronchial ultrasonography with a guide sheath

  Univariate analysis    Multivariate analysis
  OR (95% CI) P value OR (95% CI) P value
Age (≥ 75 years) 1.07 (0.50–2.27) 0.848   
Sex (male) 0.87 (0.41–1.84) 0.698   
Pulmonary complication     
 Emphysema (severe emphysema*) 1.46 (0.67–3.17) 0.395 2.13 (0.47–2.12) 0.074
 Pulmonary fibrosis 1.91 (0.80–4.54) 0.175   
Lesion location     
 Upper lobe (Rt) or upper segment (Lt) 0.37 (0.16–0.84) 0.015 0.38 (0.14–1.01) 0.053
 Lingula or middle lobe 2.39 (1.04–5.49) 0.052 1.46 (0.45–2.99) 0.358
 Lower lobe 1.49 (0.72–3.10) 0.337   
 Segments located in the sagittal direction** 2.61 (1.24–5.46) 0.014 2.47 (1.09–5.58) 0.029
Lesion appearance     
 Long diameter (< 20 mm) 1.32 (0.63–2.75) 0.449   
 GGN*** (vs. solid lesion) 4.46 (1.74–11.44) 0.006 6.47 (2.13–19.6) 0.001
 CT bronchus sign B or C ref XX 1.31 (0.63–2.72) 0.461   
 Pleural contact or indentation 0.96 (0.45–2.04) 0.961   
 EBUS finding other than “within” 1.39 (0.67–2.87) 0.450   
 EBUS finding “blizzard”/ “mixed-blizzard” 1.96 (0.73–5.26) 0.195   
 Not visible on fluoroscopy 2.11 (1.01–4.40) 0.043 1.46 (0.65–3.28) 0.358
Final diagnosis of target lesions     
 Malignancy 0.46 (0.22–0.96) 0.042 0.64 (0.66–3.67) 0.312
 Infectious disease 3.34 (1.23–9.11) 0.029 3.28 (0.99–10.87) 0.051
Years of bronchoscopist experience     
 Fewer than 5 years 1.27 (0.60–2.73) 0.510   
Guide sheath     
 Large (diameter 2.6 mm) 1.35 (0.45–3.31) 0.562   
  1. *Confluent or advanced destructive emphysema [14]
  2. **Right: S2a, S3b, S5a, S5b, S6a, S6c, S10a, S10c; left: S1 + 2b, S3b, S5a, S6a, S6c, S10a, S10c
  3. ***GGN: ground-glass-opacity-predominant nodule (consolidation-to-tumor ratio of < 0.5)
  4. Abbreviations: CT, computed tomography; EBUS, endobronchial ultrasonography