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Table 2 Association of risk factors with severe adult-onset asthma by using a question-based definition of severe asthma (Sev-Q)

From: Risk factors for severe adult-onset asthma: a multi-factor approach

  Model 1
Univariate regression model
  Model 2
Multiple regression model
n = 1173
 
  OR1 (95% CI) p1 OR2 (95% CI) p2
Male sex     
No
Yes
1
2.12 (1.41–3.20)
 < .001 1
1.96 (1.16–3.30)
.011
Age1     
  1.033 (1.02–1.05)  < .001 1.002 (0.98–1.03) .88
BMI1     
  1.010 (0.97–1.06) .66 Not entered  
Baccalaureate/secondary school     
No
Yes
1
0.50 (0.31–0.82)
.006 1
0.88 (0.48–1.65)
.70
Professional training     
No
Yes
1
0.51 (0.33–0.80)
.003 1
0.62 (0.36–1.05)
.074
Ever smokers     
No
 Yes
1
2.10 (1.32–3.32)
.002 1
1.98 (1.11–3.52)
.020
1st child     
No
Yes
1
0.69 (0.42–1.12)
.14 Not entered2  
 ≥ 2 siblings     
No
Yes
1
2.66 (1.37–5.20)
.004 1
2.51 (1.17–5.41)
.018
Growing up in the countryside/on a farm     
No
Yes
1
1.29 (0.77–2.17)
.34 Not entered  
Severe childhood infections2     
No
Yes
1
0.60 (0.32–1.15)
.13 1
0.55 (0.26–1.14)
.11
Parental smoking     
No
Yes
1
1.05 (0.70–1.58)
.82 Not entered  
Parental asthma and/or allergy     
No
Yes
1
0.76 (0.48–1.19)
.22 Not entered  
NERD     
No
Yes
1
2.13 (1.25–3.63)
.005 1
3.29 (1.75–6.19)
 < .001
CRSwNP     
No
Yes
1
0.57 (0.26–1.26)
.17 1
0.54 (0.22–1.30)
.17
 ≥ 1 other disease 3     
No
Yes
1
2.97 (1.67–5.28)
 < .001 1
2.68 (1.35–5.31)
.005
 ≥ 1 other allergic disease (AR/AC/AD)     
No
Yes
1
0.82 (0.54–1.25)
.36 Not entered  
  1. Bold values denote statistical significance at the p < 0.05 level
  2. Model 1 = univariate analysis. Model 2 = multivariable analysis by the eleven variables that were associated at the p < 0.2 level in Model 1. NERD = patient-reported NSAID-exacerbated respiratory disease; CRSwNP = chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps; AR = allergic rhinitis; AC = allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, AD = atopic dermatitis. 1continuous variables. 2The variables “1st child” and “ ≥ 2 siblings” correlated (p < 0.01, r = − 0.42, by Pearson’s correlation test); hence, to avoid multicollinearity, only the statistically significant variable “ ≥ 2 siblings” was added into the multivariable model. 2pneumonia before or during school age and/or hospitalization due to infection at ≤ 3 years of age.  3Hypertension (n = 298), coronary artery disease (n = 120), rheumatoid arthritis (n = 60), psychiatric disorder (n = 86), diabetes (n = 54), glaucoma (n = 49), back disease (n = 367), arthritis (n = 244), empyema (n = 106), other chronic disease(s) except chronic bronchitis/bronchiectasis (n = 449). Education level = baccalaureate/secondary versus primary school; professional training = completed professional college/university/courses/trade school versus no professional training. OR = odds ratio. CI = confidence interval. Severe asthma (Sev-Q) was defined as self-reported severe asthma and asthma symptoms causing much harm and regular impairment and ≥ 1 oral corticosteroid course/year or regular oral corticosteroids and/or waking up in the night due to asthma symptoms/wheezing ≥ a few times/month