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Table 1 Primary baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of the participants

From: Emergency admission parameters for predicting in-hospital mortality in patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with hypercapnic respiratory failure

Variable Death during hospitalization P
Yes (n = 19) No (n = 582)
Baseline characteristics    
Age (years) 77.9 ± 11.6 76.2 ± 10.2 0.476
Male, n (%) 12 (63.2) 413 (71.0) 0.462
Admissions for AECOPD in year prior, n (%)    0.724
0 444 (76.3) 16 (84.2)  
1 90 (15.5) 2 (10.5)  
≥ 2 48 (8.2) 1 (5.3)  
Monitoring parameters at admission    
Temperature (degrees Celsius) 36.2 ± 0.9 36.9 ± 0.8 < 0.001
Respiratory rate (beat/min) 27.4 ± 6.3 22.7 ± 6.2 0.001
Level of consciousness using the AVPU system, n (%)    < 0.001
 A 8 (42.1) 486 (83.6)  
 V 3 (15.8) 35 (6.0)  
 P 2 (10.5) 27 (4.6)  
 U 6 (31.6) 33 (5.7)  
Laboratory findings    
PH 7.2 ± 0.1 7.3 ± 0.1 < 0.001
PCO2 (mmHg) 87.4 ± 38.2 71.5 ± 17.1 < 0.001
PO2 (mmHg) 64.4 (53.1–91.2) 60.4 (45.0–81.1) 0.182
PaO2/FiO2 176.4 (99.0–240.0) 191.1 (139.0–253.4) 0.179
BE (mmol/L) 5.2 (-5.2–9.4) 8.3 (-4.7–12.3) 0.010
Lactic acid (mmol/L) 2.7 (1.4–4.8) 1.4 (0.9–2.4) < 0.001
Lactic dehydrogenase (IU/L) 335.1 (246.8–600.2) 265.0 (208.4–418.5) 0.002
Potassium (mmol/L) 4.6 ± 0.7 4.2 ± 0.7 0.005
Magnesium (mmol/L) 1.0 ± 0.1 0.9 ± 0.1 0.002
Albumin (g/L) 32.6 ± 5.2 36.0 ± 5.2 0.006
Albumin/Globulin ratio 0.9 ± 0.3 1.1 ± 0.3 0.012
Blood amylase (U/L) 86.0 (60.5–116.5) 63.0 (45.0–84.8) 0.027
Creatinine (μmol/L) 81.6 (66.5–161.9) 74.5 (58.4–97.9) 0.087
Blood urea nitrogen (mmol/L) 10.5 (7.9–14.2) 6.5 (4.9–8.7) < 0.001
C-reactive protein (mg/L) 47.5 (23.9–81.6) 18.4 (4.7–56.0) 0.033
White blood cell count (× 109/L) 14.7 ± 6.4 10.3 ± 6.3 0.003
Lymphocyte count (× 109/L) 1.2 (0.7–1.8) 0.9 (0.6–1.3) 0.056
Neutrophils count (× 109/L) 11.7 ± 4.9 8.3 ± 5.7 0.011
Red blood cell count (× 1012/L) 4.0 ± 0.5 4.7 ± 2.9 0.001
Haematocrit (%) 37.8 ± 3.9 42.7 ± 7.4 0.004
Haemoglobin (g/L) 116.4 ± 12.9 135.8 ± 23.8 < 0.001
Platelet count (× 109/L), n (%)    0.108
 < 100 2 (10.5) 53 (9.5)  
 ≥ 100, < 300 12 (63.2) 444 (79.6)  
 ≥ 300 5 (26.3) 61 (10.9)  
Mean platelet volume (fL) 10.1 ± 1.0 10.6 ± 1.2 0.073
Platelet distribution width (%) 11.2 ± 2.1 12.5 ± 2.9 0.043
Comorbidities, n (%)    
Pneumonia 7 (36.8) 267 (45.9) 0.437
Hydropneumothorax 0 (0.0) 4 (0.7) 1.000
Heart failure, coronary heart disease 3 (15.8) 137 (23.5) 0.432
Hypertension 0 (0.0) 20 (3.4) 0.411
Diabetes 0 (0.0) 4 (0.7) 0.717
Respiratory cancer 1 (5.3) 8 (1.4) 0.170
Chronic kidney failure 0 (0.0) 3 (0.5) 1.000
Pulmonary thromboembolism 2 (0.3) 0 (0.0) 0.798
Deep vein thrombosis 2 (0.3) 0 (0.0) 0.798
Intervention measures, n (%)    
Non-invasive mechanical ventilation 6 (31.6) 207 (35.6) 0.721
Invasive mechanical ventilation 11 (57.9) 126 (21.6) < 0.001
Outcomes, n (%)    
Death in emergency department 6 (31.6) 0 (0.0) < 0.001
ICU admission 11 (57.9) 161 (27.7) 0.004