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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population

From: A nomogram for predicting postoperative pulmonary infection in esophageal cancer patients

Variable Training cohort
n = 446 (%)
Validation cohort
n = 191 (%)
Gender
 Male 349 (78.3) 170 (89.0)
 Female 97 (21.7) 21 (11.0)
Age, X(SD), years 59.77 (8.3) 58.47 (8.7)
Length of stay, X(SD), days 23.89 (15.2) 24.07 (12.0)
Body Mass Index, X(SD), (kg/m2) 23.19 (3.0) 22.87 (2.8)
Smoking
 Yes 291 (65.2) 131 (68.6)
 No 155 (34.8) 60 (31.4)
Drinking
 Yes 283 (63.5) 124 (64.9)
 No 163 (36.5) 67 (35.1)
Hypertension
 Yes 91 (20.4) 52 (27.2)
 No 355 (79.6) 139 (72.8)
Diabetes mellitus
 Yes 38 (8.5) 16 (8.4)
 No 408 (91.5) 175 (91.6)
Coronary heart disease
 Yes 22 (4.9) 11 (5.8)
 No 424 (95.1) 180 (94.2)
COPD
 Yes 3 (0.7) 0 (0)
 No 443 (99.3) 191 (100)
Pulmonary tuberculosis
 Yes 27 (6.1) 13 (93.2)
 No 419 (93.9) 178 (6.8)
Tumor type
 Squamous cell carcinoma 419 (93.9) 181 (94.8)
 Adenocarcinoma 14 (3.1) 6 (3.1)
 Other 13 (3.0) 4 (2.1)
Primary tumor site
 Upper 26 (5.8) 9 (4.7)
 Middle 242 (54.3) 108 (56.6)
 Lower 137 (30.7) 55 (28.8)
 Others 41 (9.2) 19 (9.9)
AJCC pathological stage
 1 24 (5.4) 11 (5.8)
 2 339 (76) 136 (71.2)
 3 82 (18.4) 44 (23)
 4 1 (0.2) 0 (0)
AJCC clinical stage
 1 50 (11.2) 22 (11.5)
 2 225 (50.4) 99 (51.9)
 3 171 (38.4) 69 (36.1)
 4 0 (0) 1 (0.5)
Chemoradiotherapy
 Yes 1 (0.2) 0 (0)
 No 445 (99.8) 191 (100)
Lymph node metastasis
 Yes 197 (44.2) 87 (45.5)
 No 249 (55.8) 104 (54.5)
 FVC, X(SD), L 3.45 (7.4) 5.18 (27.1)
 FVC% pred, X(SD), % 89.36 (14.7) 90.93 (15.4)
 FEV1, X(SD), L 2.70 (0.7) 2.77 (0.7)
 FEV1% pred, X(SD), % 98.16 (27.2) 97.39 (18.4)
 Albumin (g/L), X(SD) 33.34 (5.1) 32.40 (3.8)
 Hemoglobin (g/L), X(SD) 124.15 (62.1) 120.69 (17.8)
Pattern of anastomosis
 1 193 (43.3) 82 (42.9)
 2 121 (27.1) 49 (25.7)
 3 44 (9.9) 13 (6.8)
 4 88 (19.7) 47 (24.6)
Surgery time, h
 ≤ 3 153 (34.3) 62 (32.5)
 > 3 293 (65.7) 129 (67.5)
 Intraoperative bleeding, X(SD), ml 183.36 (120.3) 213.98 (159.8)
Perioperative blood transfusion
 Yes 271 (60.8) 60 (31.4)
 No 175 (39.2) 131 (68.6)
ASA score
 1 63 (14.1) 27 (14.1)
 2 349 (78.3) 155 (81.2)
 3 34 (7.6) 9 (4.7)
Postoperative pulmonary infection
 Yes 95 (21.3%) 36 (18.8%)
 No 351 (78.7%) 155 (81.2%)
  1. COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, AJCC American Joint Committee on Cancer, FVC forced vital capacity, FVC% pred forced vital capacity percentage predicted, FEV1 forced expiratory volume in one second, FEV1% pred forced expiratory volume in one second percentage predicted, ASA American Society of Anesthesiologists