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Table 2 Comparisons of characteristics of patients between readmission group and non-readmission group

From: Prediction of readmission in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease within one year after treatment and discharge

Variable Description (n = 636) Non-readmission group (n = 449) Readmission group (n = 187) Statistical magnitude P
Gender, n (%)     χ2 = 2.208 0.137
 Male 425 (66.82) 292 (65.03) 133 (71.12)   
 Female 211 (33.18) 157 (34.97) 54 (28.88)   
Age, mean ± SD 70.82 ± 9.88 70.24 ± 9.73 72.21 ± 10.09 t =  − 2.295 0.022
BMI, mean ± SD 23.48 ± 2.95 23.50 ± 2.93 23.41 ± 2.99 t = 0.375 0.708
Acute exacerbation in previous 1 year, n (%)     χ2 = 56.542  < 0.001
 No 430 (67.61) 344 (76.61) 86 (45.99)   
 Yes 206 (32.39) 105 (23.39) 101 (54.01)   
Smoking status, n(%)     Z =  − 1.393 0.164
 Never smoked 321 (50.47) 220 (49.00) 101 (54.01)   
 Smoked before 93 (14.62) 64 (14.25) 29 (15.51)   
 Smoker at present 222 (34.91) 165 (36.75) 57 (30.48)   
  Daily amount of smoking, M (Q1, Q3) 0.00 (0.00, 15.00) 0.00 (0.00, 15.00) 0.00 (0.00, 10.00) Z =  − 1.499 0.134
  Duration of smoking, M (Q1, Q3) 0.00 (0.00, 30.00) 0.00 (0.00, 30.00) 0.00 (0.00, 30.00) Z =  − 1.496 0.135
  Number of years of smoking packets, M (Q1, Q3) 0.00 (0.00, 21.00) 0.00 (0.00, 25.00) 0.00 (0.00, 20.00) Z =  − 1.597 0.110
LAMA, n(%)     χ2 = 7.802 0.005
 No 479 (75.31) 352 (78.40) 127 (67.91)   
  Yes 157 (24.69) 97 (21.60) 60 (32.09)   
SAMA, n(%)     χ2 = 0.410 0.522
 No 634 (99.69) 448 (99.78) 186 (99.47)   
 Yes 2 (0.31) 1 (0.22) 1 (0.53)   
LABA, n(%)     χ2 = 16.741  < 0.001
 No 413 (64.94) 314 (69.93) 99 (52.94)   
 Yes 223 (35.06) 135 (30.07) 88 (47.06)   
SABA, n(%)     χ2 = 0.993 0.319
 No 555 (87.26) 388 (86.41) 167 (89.30)   
 Yes 81 (12.74) 61 (13.59) 20 (10.70)   
PDE4I, n(%)     χ2 = 0.045 0.833
 No 617 (97.01) 436 (97.10) 181 (96.79)   
 Yes 19 (2.99) 13 (2.90) 6 (3.21)   
ICS, n(%)     χ2 = 11.089  < 0.001
 No 422 (66.35) 316 (70.38) 106 (56.68)   
 Yes 214 (33.65) 133 (29.62) 81 (43.32)   
Congestive heart-failure, n (%)     χ2 = 0.399 0.528
 No 572 (89.94) 406 (90.42) 166 (88.77)   
 Yes 64 (10.06) 43 (9.58) 21 (11.23)   
Diabetes, n (%)     χ2 = 0.008 0.929
 No 498 (78.30) 352 (78.40) 146 (78.07)   
 Yes 138 (21.70) 97 (21.60) 41 (21.93)   
Hypertension, n (%)     χ2 = 1.650 0.199
 No 280 (44.03) 205 (45.66) 75 (40.11)   
 Yes 356 (55.97) 244 (54.34) 112 (59.89)   
Atrial fibrillation, n (%)     χ2 = 0.197 0.657
 No 596 (93.71) 422 (93.99) 174 (93.05)   
 Yes 40 (6.29) 27 (6.01) 13 (6.95)   
Combined with other diseases, n (%)     χ2 = 0.034 0.855
 No 432 (67.92) 304 (67.71) 128 (68.45)   
 Yes 204 (32.08) 145 (32.29) 59 (31.55)   
Systolic blood pressure, mean ± SD 133.46 ± 17.34 133.57 ± 17.48 133.18 ± 17.01 t = 0.258 0.796
Diastolic blood pressure, mean ± SD 78.73 ± 10.82 78.87 ± 10.99 78.40 ± 10.40 t = 0.496 0.620
Respiratory rate, mean ± SD 19.28 ± 2.53 19.20 ± 2.52 19.47 ± 2.53 t =  − 1.203 0.229
Temperature, mean ± SD 36.86 ± 0.56 36.87 ± 0.59 36.84 ± 0.46 t = 0.783 0.434
Heart rate, mean ± SD 81.65 ± 11.35 81.83 ± 11.85 81.22 ± 10.06 t = 0.616 0.538
Hb, mean ± SD 132.51 ± 17.26 132.80 ± 17.22 131.79 ± 17.32 t = 0.678 0.498
RBC, mean ± SD 4.33 ± 0.55 4.35 ± 0.56 4.28 ± 0.51 t = 1.386 0.166
WBC, M (Q1, Q3) 6.90 (5.53, 8.93) 6.89 (5.50, 8.83) 7.01 (5.71, 9.07) Z = 0.922 0.356
PLT, M (Q1, Q3) 188.50 (151.75, 235.00) 190.00 (152.00, 234.00) 183.00 (149.50, 240.00) Z =  − 0.627 0.531
NEUT, M (Q1, Q3) 4.68 (3.53, 6.65) 4.64 (3.43, 6.65) 4.96 (3.82, 6.62) Z = 1.334 0.182
Percentage of neutrophils, mean ± SD 70.54 ± 11.65 70.20 ± 11.65 71.37 ± 11.60 t =  − 1.152 0.250
LYM, M (Q1, Q3) 1.29 (0.91, 1.80) 1.33 (0.92, 1.81) 1.23 (0.85, 1.67) Z =  − 1.389 0.165
Percentage of lymphocytes, M (Q1, Q3) 19.42 (12.47, 27.13) 19.80 (13.30, 27.80) 17.60 (11.25, 25.25) Z =  − 2.031 0.042
MONO, M (Q1, Q3) 0.44 (0.33, 0.60) 0.43 (0.33, 0.58) 0.48 (0.34, 0.67) Z = 2.438 0.015
Percentage of monocytes, M (Q1, Q3) 6.30 (4.90, 8.00) 6.20 (4.90, 7.90) 6.50 (5.30, 8.30) Z = 1.451 0.147
EOS, M (Q1, Q3) 0.10 (0.03, 0.19) 0.10 (0.03, 0.19) 0.10 (0.03, 0.19) Z = 0.048 0.962
Percentage of eosinophils, M(Q1, Q3) 1.46 (0.40, 2.90) 1.47 (0.40, 2.90) 1.45 (0.40, 3.05) Z = 0.007 0.995
RDW, Mean ± SD 13.20 ± 1.05 13.16 ± 1.03 13.29 ± 1.08 t =  − 1.342 0.180
ALT, M (Q1, Q3) 15.50 (11.00, 23.00) 16.22 (11.10, 25.00) 13.30 (9.80, 19.95) Z =  − 3.176 0.002
AST, M (Q1, Q3) 18.00 (14.00, 23.10) 19.00 (14.70, 23.80) 16.50 (13.40, 21.30) Z =  − 2.896 0.004
TBIL, M (Q1, Q3) 9.35 (6.70, 13.30) 9.60 (6.90, 13.60) 8.70 (6.35, 12.30) Z =  − 1.947 0.052
ALB, Mean ± SD 39.89 ± 4.67 40.03 ± 4.73 39.55 ± 4.50 t = 1.198 0.231
BUN, M (Q1, Q3) 5.44 (4.45, 6.68) 5.45 (4.48, 6.66) 5.43 (4.39, 6.81) Z = 0.053 0.958
Cr, M (Q1, Q3) 76.20 (64.40, 93.75) 75.40 (64.80, 90.90) 78.80 (63.70, 98.15) Z = 1.099 0.272
Uric acid, M (Q1, Q3) 288.50 (226.00, 352.00) 292.00 (229.00, 351.00) 280.00 (224.50, 352.00) Z =  − 0.121 0.903
Hypersensitive C-reactive protein, M (Q1, Q3) 8.40 (2.00, 36.67) 7.20 (2.00, 38.00) 9.70 (2.15, 33.20) Z = 0.429 0.668
mMRC grade, n (%)     Z = 5.763  < 0.001
 0 1 (0.16) 0 (0.00) 1 (0.22)   
 1 138 (21.70) 22 (11.76) 116 (25.84)   
 2 279 (43.87) 73 (39.04) 206 (45.88)   
 3 189 (29.72) 75 (40.11) 114 (25.39)   
 4 29 (4.56) 17 (9.09) 12 (2.67)   
CAT score, Mean ± SD 20.28 ± 5.34 19.55 ± 5.02 22.04 ± 5.67 t =  − 5.475  < 0.001
FEV1, M (Q1, Q3) 1.60 (1.10, 2.21) 1.62 (1.12, 2.21) 1.60 (1.05, 2.19) Z =  − 0.504 0.614
FVC, M (Q1, Q3) 2.26 (1.66, 3.64) 2.20 (1.65, 3.45) 2.34 (1.70, 3.83) Z = 1.379 0.168
FEV1/FVC, Mean ± SD 67.25 ± 13.27 68.87 ± 13.48 63.36 ± 11.88 t = 4.845  < 0.001
FEV1 in predicted value FEV1, mean ± SD 56.81 (42.65, 67.80) 58.40 (43.70, 68.42) 52.60 (38.80, 65.70) Z =  − 3.076 0.002
Use of systemic glucocorticoid, n (%)     χ2 = 6.465 0.011
 No 472 (74.21) 346 (77.06) 126 (67.38)   
 Yes 164 (25.79) 103 (22.94) 61 (32.62)   
Antibacterial agents, n (%)     χ2 = 0.012 0.913
 No 13 (2.04) 9 (2.00) 4 (2.14)   
 Yes 623 (97.96) 440 (98.00) 183 (97.86)   
Oxygen therapy, n (%)     χ2 = 3.903 0.048
 No 126 (19.81) 98 (21.83) 28 (14.97)   
 Yes 510 (80.19) 351 (78.17) 159 (85.03)   
Mechanical ventilation, n (%)     χ2 = 4.276 0.039
 No 628 (98.74) 446 (99.33) 182 (97.33)   
 Noninvasive ventilation 8 (1.26) 3 (0.67) 5 (2.67)   
  1. LAMA long-acting muscarinic antagonist, LABA long-acting β agonist, SAMA short-acting muscarinic antagonist, SABA short-acting β agonist, PDE4I phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor, ICS inhaled corticosteroids, Hb hemoglobin, RBC red blood cells, WBC white blood cells, PLT platelets, NEUT neutrophil count, LYM lymphocyte count, MONO monocytes count, EOS eosinophil count, RDW red blood cell distribution width, ALT glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, AST glutamic oxalacetic transaminase, TBIL total bilirubin, ALB albumin, BUN blood urea nitrogen, Cr creatinine, mMRC modified Medical Research Council, CAT COPD assessment test, FEV1 forced expiratory volume in 1 s, FVC forced vital capacity