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Table 3 Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios of potential risk factors for low KCO

From: The association between transfer coefficient of the lung and the risk of exacerbation in asthma-COPD overlap: an observational cohort study

Variables Number of events/cases (%) Multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) P value
  Exposure group Reference group   
Male gender 28/77 (36.4%) 4/17 (23.5%) 1.77 (0.26–13.5) 0.56
Age (per 10-year increase) N/A N/A 1.12 (0.52–2.41) 0.77
BMI (per 1 kg/m2 increase) N/A N/A 0.73 (0.57–0.90)  < 0.01
FEV1 (per 1 L increase) N/A N/A 1.67 (0.62–4.72) 0.32
Inhaled long-acting bronchodilator use 24/68 (35.3%) 8/26 (30.8%) 2.22 (0.25–23.1) 0.48
ICS use 21/64 (32.8%) 11/30 (36.7%) 0.74 (0.08–6.52) 0.79
COPD-like features     
Smoking history ≥ 10 pack-years 30/87 (34.5%) 2/7 (28.6%) 1.84 (0.20–21.9) 0.60
Emphysema 29/64 (45.3%) 3/30 (10.0%) 7.37 (1.81–40.3)  < 0.01
Asthmatic features     
Eosinophilic component 21/56 (37.5%) 11/38 (28.9%) 2.20 (0.66–8.14) 0.21
High FeNO 12/44 (27.3%) 20/50 (40.0%) 0.36 (0.09–1.23) 0.11
Positive levels for total IgE and/or IgE specific to perennial inhalant antigens 21/75 (28.0%) 11/19 (57.9%) 0.42 (0.09–1.70) 0.23
Bronchial reversibility 5/18 (27.8%) 27/76 (35.5%) 0.47 (0.09–2.15) 0.35
  1. Adjustment was made for age, gender, BMI, FEV1, long-acting bronchodilator use, ICS use, a smoking history of > 10 pack-years, emphysema, high FeNO, bronchial reversibility, an eosinophilic component, and positive levels for total IgE and/or IgE specific to perennial inhalant antigens. The eosinophilic component was defined as blood eosinophil ≥ 5% and/or ≥ 300/µl. High FeNO was defined as ≥ 35 parts per billion. Bronchial reversibility was defined as ≥ 12% and ≥ 200 ml reversibility in post-bronchodilator FEV1. Positive levels for total IgE were defined as > 170 IU/ml
  2. OR, odds ratio; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; BMI, body mass index; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 s; ICS, inhaled corticosteroid; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; N/A, not applicable