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Table 1 General characteristics of women with GDM in OSA and non-OSA groups

From: Systemic inflammation and sympathetic activation in gestational diabetes mellitus with obstructive sleep apnea

Variables Total (n = 51) OSA (n = 17) Non-OSA (n = 34) p Value
Age (years) 37 (33–39) 38 (35–40) 35 (32–39) 0.120
Gestational age (weeks) at plasma sampling 36 (34–37) 36 (34–36.5) 36 (34.75–38) 0.551
BMI before pregnancy (kg/m2) 26.7 (23.3–30.1) 29.2 (24.9–32.4) 25.76 (23.2–29.1) 0.15
Obese before pregnancy n (%) 13 (25.5) 6 (35.3) 7 (20.6) 0.256
First pregnancy n (%) 26 (52) 8 (50) 18 (52.9) 0.846
Pre-gestational smoker n (%)
No 27 (52.9) 7 (41.2) 20 (58.8) 0.393
Yes 15 (29.4) 7 (41.2) 8 (23.5)
Former smoker 9 (17.6) 3 (17.6) 6 (17.6)
Neck circumference (cm) 35.4 ± 3 35.1 ± 3.6 35.5 ± 2.8 0.634
Waist (cm) 110.2 ± 9.4 111 ± 11.4 109.8 ± 8.4 0.689
Hip circumference (cm) 115.7 ± 13.4 127.8 ± 18.3 112.1 ± 9.4 0.008
Glucose (mg/dL) 76.8 ± 8.9 74.5 ± 6.7 78 ± 9.6 0.186
Insulin (µUI/mL) 11.8 (8.9–16.9) 18.2 (13.4–25.5) 13.4 (11.5–13.9) 0.137
HOMA-IR 2.6 (1.7–3.2) 2.7 (1.8–4.9) 2.6 (1.2–2.8) 0.22
QUICKI 0.33 (0.32–0.35) 0.33 (0.30–0.35) 0.33 (0.33–0.37) 0.202
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 259 ± 57 258 ± 65 259 ± 54 0.952
Triglycerides (mg/dL) 221 (162–293) 216 (159–299) 232 (161–293) 0.865
HDL (mg/dL) 66 (58–75) 70 (60–82.5) 61 (50.5–72.5) 0.029
LDL (mg/dL) 144.9 ± 42.9 137.7 ± 35.3 148.5 ± 46 0.415
ALT (U/L) 16 (13–21) 17 (13.5–24) 15.5 (12–19.5) 0.275
GGT (U/L) 11 (7–16) 10 (7–15.5) 11 (7.8–16.5) 0.574
Hemoglobin (g/dL) 12.4 ± 0.14 12.8 ± 0.89 12.1 ± 1.04 0.032
Leucocytes (103/uL) 8.5 ± 2.06 8.79 ± 2.18 8.36 ± 2.02 0.496
Platelets (103/uL) 213 ± 8 195 ± 47 222 ± 60 0.112
Systolic BP (mmHg) 109 ± 12 111 ± 13 109 ± 12 0.990
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 68 ± 10 71 ± 11 66 ± 9 0.098
  1. Bold indicates statistically significant differences between the groups
  2. Descriptive analysis and comparison between groups. Continuous variables in mean ± SD if they follow normal distribution or in median (IQR) if they follow a non-parametric distribution. For categorical variables n (%). Limited to noninsulin users (n = 30). Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, GDM gestational diabetes mellitus, HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, HDL high-density lipoprotein, LDL low-density lipoprotein, ALT alanine aminotransferase, GGT gamma glutamyl-transpeptidase, BP blood pressure, g grams, kg kilograms, mg milligrams, m meter, cm centimetre, dL deciliter, U units, L liter, uL microliter, mmHg millimeter of mercury