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Table 2 Polysomnography data, sleep symptoms, and physical characteristics in OSA and non-OSA groups

From: Systemic inflammation and sympathetic activation in gestational diabetes mellitus with obstructive sleep apnea

Variables Total OSA (n = 17) Non-OSA (n = 34) p Value
Total sleep time, (min) 299 ± 61.1 283.3 ± 64.8 306.8 ± 58.6 0.198
N1 + N2 (%) 57.7 (31.5–69.3) 56 (19.2–68.8) 58 (47.2–70.8) 0.328
N3 (%) 26.5 (20.3–55.9) 31.3 (20.9–67.1) 24.3 (17.9–41.5) 0.328
REM sleep time (%) 11.41 ± 5.42 11.48 ± 4.34 11.37 ± 5.94 0.944
AHI (h−1) 0.9 (0.4–5.9) 7.6 (5.8–13.1) 0.5 (0.2–0.9) 0.001
OAI (h−1) 0 (0–0.3) 0.6 (0–1.3) 0 (0–0) 0.001
Arousal index (h−1) 13.1 (1.8–24.3) 16.9 (1.4–37.5) 12.3 (1.4–22) 0.349
REM AHI (h−1) 3.3 (0–8.6) 10.3 (6.4–23.5) 1.3 (0–3.7) 0.001
Mean SaO2 (%) 97.5 ± 1.4 96.6 ± 1.3 98 ± 1.1 0.002
Minimum SaO2 (%) 92 (89–94) 89 (86–91) 93 (91–94) 0.002
CT90%SaO2 (min) 0 (0–0.3) 0.2 (0–1) 0 (0–0) 0.01
Desaturation index (h−1) 0.2 (0–0.9) 0.9 (0–3.4) 0.2 (0–0.5) 0.014
Nocturia n (%) 42 (82.4) 15 (88.2) 27 (79.4) 0.359
Reported apneas, n (%) 5 (10.2) 3 (17.6) 2 (6.3) 0.210
Frequent gasping awakenings, n (%) 13 (25.5) 5 (29.4) 8 (23.5) 0.65
Morning headaches n (%) 9 (17.6) 2 (11.8) 7 (20.6) 0.436
Unrefreshing sleep n (%) 25 (50) 6 (56.2) 16 (47.1) 0.311
Snoring (always/frequent) n (%) 16 (31.4) 6 (35.3) 10 (29.4) 0.670
Reported sleep time, working days (h) 7.5 (7–8) 8 (6.5–9) 7 (6.9–8) 0.109
Reported sleep time, weekends (h) 8 (7–9) 8 (7–9) 8 (7–8) 0.156
Micrognatia n (%) 1 (2) 0 (0) 1 (2.9) 1.00
Mallampati score n (%)
I–II 24 (47.1) 9 (52.9) 15 (44.1) 0.552
III–IV 27 (52.9) 8 (47.1) 19 (55.9)
Epworth sleepiness scale 6.2 ± 3 7.1 ± 3 5.8 ± 2.9 0.154
  1. Bold indicates statistically significant differences between the groups
  2. Continuous variables in mean ± SD if they follow normal distribution or in median (IQR) if they follow a non-parametric distribution. For categorical variables n (%). Abbreviations: N1 + N2, time in sleep at stage 1 and 2; N3, time in sleep at stage 3; REM, rapid eye movement; AHI, apneas/hypopneas index; OAI, obstructive apneas index; SaO2, oxygen saturation; CT90%, sleep time with oxygen saturation < 90%; min, minutes; h−1, per hour; h, hours