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Table 5 Multivariable logistic regression analyzing factors associated with the recognition of respiratory symptoms of lung cancer

From: Awareness of Palestinians about lung cancer symptoms: a national cross-sectional study

Characteristic Worsening or change in an existing cough Coughing up blood Persistent shortness of breath An ache or pain when breathing
AOR (95% CI)* p-value AOR (95% CI)* p-value AOR (95% CI)* p-value AOR (95% CI)* p-value
Age group         
 18 to 44 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 45 or older 0.81 (0.66–0.99) 0.041 0.87 (0.71–1.06) 0.16 0.99 (0.82–1.19) 0.89 0.86 (0.72–1.03) 0.09
Gender         
 Male Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Female 1.29 (1.04–1.61) 0.021 1.12 (0.91–1.37) 0.30 0.92 (0.76–1.12) 0.42 1.16 (0.96–1.40) 0.12
Educational level         
 Secondary or below Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Above secondary 1.79 (1.51–2.11) < 0.001 1.50 (1.29–1.76) < 0.001 1.71 (1.47–1.98) < 0.001 1.40 (1.21–1.61) < 0.001
Occupation         
 Unemployed/housewife Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Employed 1.11 (0.90–1.36) 0.35 1.28 (1.05–1.56) 0.013 1.12 (0.93–1.34) 0.24 1.18 (0.99–1.41) 0.07
 Retired 0.71 (0.44–1.15) 0.17 1.12 (0.68–1.84) 0.66 1.22 (0.74–1.99) 0.44 1.42 (0.89–2.29) 0.15
 Student 1.25 (0.90–1.75) 0.19 1.33 (0.99–1.80) 0.06 1.57 (1.17–2.09) 0.003 1.32 (0.99–1.76) 0.05
Monthly income         
 < 1450 NIS Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 ≥ 1450 NIS 1.26 (1.01–1.56) 0.037 1.21 (0.99–1.48) 0.06 1.25 (1.03–1.51) 0.024 1.12 (0.93–1.35) 0.24
Marital status         
 Single Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Married 0.85 (0.70–1.04) 0.10 1.06 (0.88–1.27) 0.57 0.99 (0.831.17) 0.88 0.80 (0.68–0.96) 0.014
 Divorced/Widowed 0.87 (0.56–1.36) 0.55 1.66 (1.04–2.64) 0.033 0.84 (0.57–1.22) 0.36 0.83 (0.57–1.23) 0.36
Residency         
 Gaza Strip Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 WBJ 1.09 (0.89–1.33) 0.41 1.27 (1.05–1.54) 0.015 0.98 (0.82–1.17) 0.80 1.02 (0.85–1.22) 0.83
Having a chronic disease         
 No Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Yes 1.27 (1.03–1.57) 0.026 1.10 (0.90–1.34) 0.36 0.92 (0.77–1.11) 0.39 0.87 (0.73–1.04) 0.13
Knowing someone with cancer         
 No Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Yes 1.26 (1.08–1.47) 0.003 1.07 (0.92–1.23) 0.38 1.40 (1.22–1.60) < 0.001 1.43 (1.25–1.64) < 0.001
Ever smoked cigarettes and/or shisha         
 No Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Yes 0.93 (0.77–1.14) 0.50 0.97 (0.80–1.18) 0.79 0.90 (0.75–1.07) 0.23 0.96 (0.80–1.14) 0.64
Site of data collection         
 Public Spaces Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Hospitals 1.45 (1.22–1.73) < 0.001 1.36 (1.15–1.61) < 0.001 1.69 (1.45–1.99) < 0.001 1.73 (1.48–2.02) < 0.001
 Primary healthcare centers 1.69 (1.37–2.09) < 0.001 1.56 (1.28–1.90) < 0.001 2.03 (1.68–2.44) < 0.001 2.10 (1.75–2.53) < 0.001
Characteristic Persistent chest pain Painful cough Persistent (3 weeks or longer) chest infection A cough that does not go away for two or three weeks
AOR (95% CI)* p-value AOR (95% CI)* p-value AOR (95% CI)* p-value AOR (95% CI)* p-value
Age group         
 18 to 44 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 45 or older 1.12 (0.93–1.34) 0.23 0.96 (0.81–1.15) 0.67 1.07 (0.90–1.27) 0.48 1.09 (0.92–1.29) 0.31
Gender         
 Male Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Female 0.96 (0.79–1.15) 0.63 1.12 (0.93–1.34) 0.24 1.08 (0.90–1.30) 0.4 1.19 (1.00–1.41) 0.051
Educational level         
 Secondary or below Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Above secondary 1.27 (1.10–1.47) 0.001 1.49 (1.29–1.71) < 0.001 1.54 (1.34–1.76) < 0.001 1.48 (1.29–1.69) < 0.001
Occupation         
 Unemployed/housewife Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Employed 1.12 (0.94–1.34) 0.21 1.10 (0.93–1.31) 0.28 1.17 (0.99–1.39) 0.07 1.25 (1.06–1.47) 0.007
 Retired 1.22 (0.76–1.98) 0.41 0.98 (0.63–1.54) 0.94 1.11 (0.71–1.73) 0.66 1.13 (0.74–1.73) 0.58
 Student 1.42 (1.08–1.87) 0.021 1.36 (1.03–1.79) 0.029 1.21 (0.93–1.58) 0.15 1.32 (1.03–1.69) 0.031
Monthly income         
 < 1450 NIS Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 ≥ 1450 NIS 1.20 (0.99–1.44) 0.06 1.22 (1.02–1.46) 0.034 1.20 (1.00–1.43) 0.051 1.18 (1.00–1.40) 0.06
Marital status         
 Single Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Married 0.86 (0.73–1.02) 0.08 0.82 (0.70–0.97) 0.023 0.88 (0.75–1.04) 0.13 0.85 (0.72–0.99) 0.036
 Divorced/Widowed 0.87 (0.59–1.27) 0.46 0.83 (0.57–1.22) 0.35 0.64 (0.44–0.92) 0.015 0.84 (0.59–1.20) 0.34
Residency         
 Gaza Strip Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 WBJ 0.88 (0.74–1.05) 0.15 1.13 (0.95–1.34) 0.17 0.97 (0.82–1.15) 0.70 1.13 (0.96–1.33) 0.14
Having a chronic disease         
 No Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Yes 0.96 (0.80–1.15) 0.66 1.01 (0.85–1.21) 0.92 0.93 (0.78–1.11) 0.43 0.99 (0.84–1.17) 0.90
Knowing someone with cancer         
 No Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Yes 1.42 (1.24–1.62) < 0.001 1.36 (1.20–1.55) < 0.001 1.22 (1.07–1.38) 0.003 1.16 (1.03–1.31) 0.017
Ever smoked cigarettes and/or shisha         
 No Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Yes 0.95 (0.80–1.13) 0.54 0.96 (0.81–1.14) 0.66 0.89 (0.76–1.06) 0.19 0.94 (0.80–1.11) 0.46
Site of data collection         
 Public Spaces Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Hospitals 1.65 (1.42–1.93) < 0.001 1.85 (1.58–2.15) < 0.001 1.78 (1.54–2.07) < 0.001 1.65 (1.43–1.90) < 0.001
 Primary healthcare centers 2.07 (1.72–2.48) < 0.001 2.09 (1.75–2.49) < 0.001 1.79 (1.50–2.12) < 0.001 1.70 (1.44–2.01) < 0.001
  1. AOR = adjusted odds ratio, CI = confidence interval, WBJ = West Bank and Jerusalem
  2. *Adjusted for age-group, gender, educational level, occupation, monthly income, marital status, residency, having a chronic disease, knowing someone with cancer, smoking history, and site of data collection