Skip to main content

Table 6 Multivariable logistic regression analyzing factors associated with the recognition of non-respiratory symptoms of lung cancer

From: Awareness of Palestinians about lung cancer symptoms: a national cross-sectional study

Characteristic Persistent tiredness or lack of energy Developing an unexplained loud, high-pitched sound when breathing Loss of appetite Unexplained weight loss Changes in the shape of fingers or nails Persistent shoulder pain
AOR (95% CI)* p-value AOR (95% CI)* p-value AOR (95% CI)* p-value AOR (95% CI)* p-value AOR (95% CI)* p-value AOR (95% CI)* p-value
Age group             
 18 to 44 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 45 or older 0.98 (0.82–1.16) 0.77 0.98 (0.83–1.17) 0.86 0.96 (0.81–1.13) 0.60 1.28 (1.08–1.51) 0.004 1.07 (0.90–1.27) 0.43 1.22 (1.01–1.47) 0.036
Gender             
 Male Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Female 1.06 (0.89–1.27) 0.50 1.23 (1.04–1.47) 0.018 1.09 (0.92–1.29) 0.33 1.30 (1.10–1.54) 0.002 1.11 (0.94–1.32) 0.23 1.43 (1.18–1.74) < 0.001
Educational level             
 Secondary or below Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Above secondary 1.41 (1.23–1.62) < 0.001 1.31 (1.15–1.50) < 0.001 1.12 (0.98–1.27) 0.12 1.23 (1.08–1.40) 0.002 0.88 (0.77–1.01) 0.07 1.08 (0.93–1.26) 0.33
Occupation             
 Unemployed/housewife Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Employed 1.13 (0.96–1.34) 0.15 1.20 (1.02–1.42) 0.031 0.92 (0.78–1.08) 0.32 1.24 (1.06–1.46) 0.007 0.97 (0.82–1.14) 0.70 1.07 (0.89–1.28) 0.48
 Retired 1.26 (0.80–1.98) 0.32 0.99 (0.65–1.50) 0.94 1.08 (0.70–1.66) 0.75 1.09 (0.72–1.67) 0.68 0.83 (0.53–1.28) 0.40 0.85 (0.52–1.39) 0.51
 Student 1.31 (1.01–1.69) 0.043 1.20 (0.93–1.54) 0.16 1.01 (0.79–1.29) 0.92 1.09 (0.86–1.38) 0.48 1.18 (0.92–1.50) 0.20 1.04 (0.79–1.37) 0.77
Monthly income             
 < 1450 NIS Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 ≥ 1450 NIS 1.07 (0.89–1.28) 0.46 1.03 (0.86–1.22) 0.77 1.00 (0.84–1.19) 0.97 1.09 (0.92–1.29) 0.31 0.84 (0.71–1.00) 0.048 1.25 (1.04–1.52) 0.021
Marital status             
 Single Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Married 1.01 (0.86–1.19) 0.91 0.89 (0.76–1.04) 0.13 1.18 (1.01–1.38) 0.034 1.15 (.99–1.34) 0.06 1.02 (0.87–1.19) 0.85 0.87 (0.73–1.04) 0.13
 Divorced/Widowed 0.87 (0.61–1.26) 0.47 1.15 (0.79–1.67) 0.48 1.17 (.81–1.68) 0.40 1.03 (0.72–1.46) 0.89 0.89 (0.62–1.29) 0.54 1.00 (.68–1.48) 1.00
Residency             
 Gaza Strip Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 WBJ 0.83 (0.70–0.98) 0.032 1.12 (0.95–1.32) 0.17 0.91 (0.78–1.07) 0.27 1.02 (0.87–1.19) 0.81 0.86 (0.73–1.01) 0.06 0.71 (0.59–0.85) < 0.001
Having a chronic disease             
 No Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Yes 0.98 (0.82–1.16) 0.81 1.00 (0.84–1.18) 0.98 0.92 (0.781.09) 0.35 0.98 (0.83–1.15) 0.79 0.99 (0.83–1.17) 0.88 1.23 (1.03–1.48) 0.026
Knowing someone with cancer             
 No Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Yes 1.55 (1.37–1.76) < 0.001 1.06 (0.94–1.20) 0.35 1.59 (1.40–1.79) < 0.001 1.44 (1.28–1.63) < 0.001 1.42 (1.26–1.61) < 0.001 1.15 (1.00–1.32) 0.043
Ever smoked cigarettes and/or shisha             
 No Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Yes 0.92 (0.78–1.09) 0.32 0.91 (0.77–1.07) 0.24 1.01 (0.86–1.18) 0.95 1.02 (0.87–1.19) 0.80 0.89 (0.75–1.04) 0.15 0.88 (0.72–1.06) 0.17
Site of data collection             
 Public Spaces Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Hospitals 1.64 (1.42–1.90) < 0.001 1.93 (1.67–2.23) < 0.001 1.22 (1.06–1.41) 0.005 1.49 (1.30–1.72) < 0.001 1.08 (0.94–1.25) 0.23 1.03 (0.87–1.22) 0.71
 Primary healthcare 1.93 (1.62–2.29) < 0.001 1.98 (1.68–2.35) < 0.001 1.56 (1.32–1.84) < 0.001 1.74 (1.48–2.05) < 0.001 1.08 (0.92–1.28) 0.34 1.85 (1.55–2.21) < 0.001
  1. AOR = adjusted odds ratio, CI = confidence interval, WBJ = West Bank and Jerusalem
  2. *Adjusted for age-group, gender, educational level, occupation, monthly income, marital status, residency, having a chronic disease, knowing someone with cancer, smoking history, and site of data collection