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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population

From: Impact of anxiety and depression on the prognosis of copd exacerbations

Mean age, years (SD) 73.7 (10.9)
Sex, n (%)  
 Male 244 (84.7)
 Female 44 (15.3)
Tobacco use, n (%)  
 Active smoker 81 (28.1)
 Former smoker 177 (61.5)
 Never smoker 19 (6.6)
 Unknown 11 (3.8)
FEV1%, mean (SD) 53.0 (19.6)
FEV1/FVC, mean (SD) 50.5 (13.6)
GOLD, n (%)  
 Mild 22 (9.6)
 Moderate 97 (42.4)
 Severe 89 (38.9)
 Very severe 21 (9.2)
BMI, kg/m2, mean (SD) 28.9 (5.8)
ICU, n (%) 1 (0.3)
Admissions previous year, n (%)  
 0 173 (60.1)
 1 52 (18.1)
 ≥ 2 63 (21.9)
ED previous year, n (%)  
 0 117 (40.6)
 1 60 (20.8)
 ≥ 2 111 (38.5)
Early readmission, n (%) 18 (6.3)
Late readmission, n (%) 118 (41)
Hospital mortality, n (%) 4 (1.4)
Mortality at 18 months, n (%) 135 (47)
HADS-anxiety, n (%)  
 ≥ 8 points 197 (68.4)
 ≥ 11 points 102 (35.4)
HADS-depression, n (%)  
 ≥ 8 points 195 (67.7)
 ≥ 11 points 120 (41.7)
  1. BMI, body mass index; ED, emergency department; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in the first second; FVC, forced vital capacity; HADS, hospital anxiety and depression scale; SD, standard deviation; UCI, intensive care unit