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  1. Although personal cigarette smoking is the most important cause and modulator of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure could influence the course of the disease. Despite...

    Authors: Mark D Eisner, John Balmes, Edward H Yelin, Patricia P Katz, S Katherine Hammond, Neal Benowitz and Paul D Blanc
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2006 6:12
  2. Although both smoking and respiratory complaints are very common, tools to improve diagnostic accuracy are scarce in primary care. This study aimed to reveal what inflammatory patterns prevail in clinically es...

    Authors: Niels H Chavannes, Juanita HJ Vernooy, Tjard RJ Schermer, Jan A Jacobs, Mieke A Dentener, Chris van Weel, Onno CP van Schayck and Emiel FM Wouters
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2006 6:11
  3. Although it is recognised that smoking is a major risk factor for subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and is associated with respiratory symptoms, there is less agreement concerning the relatio...

    Authors: Peter Frank, Julie Morris, Michelle Hazell, Mary Linehan and Timothy Frank
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2006 6:10
  4. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia, a complex chronic lung disease in premature children in which oxidative stress and surfactant deficiency play a crucial role, is characterized by arrested alveolar and vascular deve...

    Authors: Simone AJ ter Horst, Margot Fijlstra, Sujata Sengupta, Frans J Walther and Gerry TM Wagenaar
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2006 6:8
  5. Symptomatic respiratory tract involvement is not common in Crohn's disease. Upper-airway obstruction has been reported before in Crohn's disease and usually responds well to steroid treatment.

    Authors: Maria Plataki, Eleni Tzortzaki, Irene Lambiri, Elpida Giannikaki, Armin Ernst and Nikolaos M Siafakas
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2006 6:7
  6. Smoking is known to cause chronic inflammatory changes in the bronchi and to contribute to airway hyper-reactivity, such as in bronchial asthma. To study the effect of smoking on the endothelin system in rat a...

    Authors: Bengt W Granström, Cang-Bao Xu, Elisabeth Nilsson, Petter Vikman and Lars Edvinsson
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2006 6:6
  7. A quantitative understanding of airway sizes and proportions and a reference point for comparisons are important to a pediatric bronchoscopist. The aims of this study were to measure large airway areas, and de...

    Authors: Ian B Masters, Robert S Ware, Paul V Zimmerman, Brian Lovell, Richard Wootton, Paul V Francis and Anne B Chang
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2006 6:5
  8. Clearance of inhaled technetium-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (99mTc-DTPA) is a marker of epithelial damage and an index of lung epithelial permeability. The aim of this study was to investigate the rol...

    Authors: Katerina M Antoniou, Katerina Malagari, Nikolaos Tzanakis, Kostas Perisinakis, Emmanouil K Symvoulakis, Nikolaos Karkavitsas, Nikolaos M Siafakas and Demosthenes Bouros
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2006 6:4
  9. Systemic inflammation is associated with various complications in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease including weight loss, cachexia, osteoporosis, cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Inhaled corticosteroid...

    Authors: Don D Sin, SF Paul Man, Darcy D Marciniuk, Gordon Ford, Mark FitzGerald, Eric Wong, Ernest York, Rajesh R Mainra, Warren Ramesh, Lyle S Melenka, Eric Wilde, Robert L Cowie, Dave Williams and Roxanne Rousseau
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2006 6:3
  10. Reduced forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) has been linked to non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, it is unclear whether all or only certain histological subtypes of NSCLC are associated with r...

    Authors: Samir Malhotra, Stephen Lam, SF Paul Man, Wen Q Gan and Don D Sin
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2006 6:2
  11. Hemoptysis is a significant clinical presentation in respiratory medicine. Often a life threatening emergency, it mandates prompt assessment and intervention. Various investigations and management protocols ar...

    Authors: Omer Ashraf
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2006 6:1
  12. Hepatocyte and keratinocyte growth factors are key growth factors in the process of alveolar repair. We hypothesized that excessive alveolar destruction observed in lung emphysema involves impaired expression ...

    Authors: Marcel Bonay, Anne Boutten, Véronique Leçon-Malas, Joëlle Marchal, Paul Soler, Michel Fournier, Guy Leseche, Monique Dehoux and Bruno Crestani
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2005 5:13
  13. Recent studies suggest that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors may have beneficial effects for patients at risk for some types of infections. We examined the effect of prior outpatient use of ACE i...

    Authors: Eric M Mortensen, Marcos I Restrepo, Antonio Anzueto and Jacqueline Pugh
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2005 5:12
  14. Infectious respiratory diseases are transmitted to non-infected subjects when an infected person expels pathogenic microorganisms to the surrounding environment when coughing or sneezing. When the airway mucus...

    Authors: Gustavo Zayas, John Dimitry, Ana Zayas, Darryl O'Brien and Malcolm King
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2005 5:11
  15. The effects of changes in cooling temperature on biomarker levels in exhaled breath condensate have been little investigated. The aim of the study was to test the effect of condensation temperature on the para...

    Authors: Matteo Goldoni, Andrea Caglieri, Roberta Andreoli, Diana Poli, Paola Manini, Maria Vittoria Vettori, Massimo Corradi and Antonio Mutti
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2005 5:10
  16. We hypothesized that sympathetic nervous system activity (SNSA) is increased and parasympathetic nervous system activity (PNSA) is decreased during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep in non-apneic, otherwise ...

    Authors: Gregory J Gates, Susan E Mateika and Jason H Mateika
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2005 5:9
  17. Sarcoidosis is thought to be a T-helper type 1 cytokine (Th2 cytokine) mediated disorder. Induced sputum (IS) has been proposed as a useful non-invasive method, mainly for the assessment of the airway diseases...

    Authors: Ioanna Tsiligianni, Katerina M Antoniou, Despina Kyriakou, Nikolaos Tzanakis, George Chrysofakis, Nikolaos M Siafakas and Demosthenes Bouros
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2005 5:8
  18. Asthma changes both the volume and patterns of healthcare of affected people. Most studies of asthma health care utilization have been done in selected insured populations or in a single site such as the emerg...

    Authors: Barbara P Yawn, George E Fryer, Robert L Phillips, Susan M Dovey, David Lanier and Larry A Green
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2005 5:7
  19. There is considerable evidence from the literature that children with chronic lung disease of infancy (CLD) have abnormal pulmonary function in childhood and this could have an impact on their life quality and...

    Authors: Saad Alotaibi, David Johnson, Mark Montegomery, Reginald Sauve and Sheldon Spier
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2005 5:6
  20. The recent increase in childhood asthma has been a puzzling one. Recent views focus on the role of infection in the education of the immune system of young children. However, this so called hygiene hypothesis ...

    Authors: Wasim Maziak
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2005 5:5
  21. Multiple studies have linked fungal exposure to asthma, but the link to severe asthma is controversial. We studied the relationship between asthma severity and immediate type hypersensitivity to mold (fungal) ...

    Authors: B Ronan O'Driscoll, Linda C Hopkinson and David W Denning
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2005 5:4
  22. Whether inhaled corticosteroids suppress airway inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains controversial. We sought to determine the effects of inhaled corticosteroids on sputum indic...

    Authors: Wen Qi Gan, SF Paul Man and Don D Sin
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2005 5:3
  23. Asthma is a complex genetic disease with more than 20 genome-wide scans conducted so far. Regions on almost every chromosome have been linked to asthma and several genes have been associated. However, most of ...

    Authors: Janine Altmüller, Corinna Seidel, Young-Ae Lee, Sabine Loesgen, Dieter Bulle, Frank Friedrichs, Heidemarie Jellouschek, Julika Kelber, Angela Keller, Antje Schuster, Michael Silbermann, Wolfgang Wahlen, Peter Wolff, Gerhard Schlenvoigt, Franz Rüschendorf, Peter Nürnberg…
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2005 5:1
  24. Prophylactic treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for 3 months or more is associated with a reduction in the frequency of exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This raises the questio...

    Authors: Peter N Black, Althea Morgan-Day, Tracey E McMillan, Phillippa J Poole and Robert P Young
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2004 4:13
  25. Patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) commonly require hospitalization and admission to intensive care unit (ICU). It is useful to identify patients at the time of ad...

    Authors: GC Khilnani, Amit Banga and SK Sharma
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2004 4:12
  26. A number of subjects, especially the very young and the elderly, are unable to cooperate and to perform forced expiratory manoeuvres in the evaluation of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR). The objective of o...

    Authors: Panagiotis Panagou, Ioannis Kottakis, Argyris Tzouvelekis, Stavros Anevlavis and Demosthenes Bouros
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2004 4:11
  27. Many trials of nebulized therapy have used nebulized saline as a "placebo". However, nebulized isotonic saline is sometimes used to assist sputum expectoration and relieve breathlessness in COPD patients. We d...

    Authors: Shahina Y Khan and B Ronan O'Driscoll
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2004 4:9
  28. Non-invasive monitoring of respiratory muscle function is an area of increasing research interest, resulting in the appearance of new monitoring devices, one of these being piezoelectric contact sensors. The p...

    Authors: José Antonio Fiz, Raimon Jané, Abel Torres, Josep Morera, Batxi Galdiz, Joaquín Gea and Alejandro Grassino
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2004 4:8
  29. The long acting β2-agonists, salmeterol and formoterol, have been recommended, by some, as first line treatment of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We reviewed evidence of efficacy and safe...

    Authors: Don Husereau, Vijay Shukla, Michel Boucher, Shaila Mensinkai and Robert Dales
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2004 4:7
  30. The predictive role of many cytokines has not been well defined in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS).

    Authors: Demosthenes Bouros, Michael G Alexandrakis, Katerina M Antoniou, Panagiotis Agouridakis, Ioannis Pneumatikos, Stavros Anevlavis, Athanasia Pataka, George Patlakas, Nikolaos Karkavitsas and Despina Kyriakou
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2004 4:6
  31. Physical exercise has become a cornerstone of management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) because it leads to clinically relevant improvements of exercise capacity and health-related quality of ...

    Authors: Milo A Puhan, Gilbert Büsching, Evelien vanOort, Christian Zaugg, Holger J Schünemann and Martin Frey
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2004 4:5
  32. We tested the hypothesis that ventilatory drive in hypoxia and hypercapnia is inversely correlated with the number of hypopneas and obstructive apneas per hour of sleep (obstructive apnea hypopnea index, OAHI)...

    Authors: Ralph F Fregosi, Stuart F Quan, Andrew C Jackson, Kris L Kaemingk, Wayne J Morgan, Jamie L Goodwin, Jenny C Reeder, Rosaria K Cabrera and Elena Antonio
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2004 4:4
  33. Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) which is an important part of all nosocomial infections in intensive care unit (ICU) is a serious illness with substantial morbidity and mortality, and increases costs of ...

    Authors: Riza Hakan Erbay, Ata Nevzat Yalcin, Mehmet Zencir, Simay Serin and Habip Atalay
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2004 4:3
  34. Interleukin-5 (IL-5) is thought to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of asthma. High levels of circulating IL-5 have been documented in acute asthma. However, serum IL-5 levels in mild to moderate asthma...

    Authors: Jose Joseph, Sheela Benedict, Wassef Safa and Maries Joseph
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2004 4:2
  35. Although the pathophysiological defect in primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD; Siewert's / Kartagener's syndrome) is now well characterised, there are few studies of the impact of the condition upon health functio...

    Authors: I Christopher McManus, Hannah M Mitchison, Eddie MK Chung, Georgina F Stubbings and Naomi Martin
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2003 3:4
  36. Approximately ten percent of patients placed on mechanical ventilation during acute illness will require long-term ventilator support. Unfortunately, despite rehabilitation, some will never be liberated from t...

    Authors: Katherine P Hendra, Peter AL Bonis and Martin Joyce-Brady
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2003 3:3
  37. Fine needle aspiration is an important tool for diagnosis and preoperative evaluation of solitary nodules of the lung. It provides a definitive diagnosis in most patients at low cost with minimal trauma. Howev...

    Authors: Bahman Torkian, Rani Kanthan and Brent Burbridge
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2003 3:2
  38. HTLV-I infection has been linked to lung pathology and HTLV-II has been associated with an increased incidence of pneumonia and acute bronchitis. However it is unknown whether HTLV-I or -II infection alters pu...

    Authors: Edward L Murphy, Helen E Ownby, James W Smith, George Garratty, Sheila T Hutching, Ying Wu and Dannie I Ameti
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2003 3:1
  39. The heterogeneity of conditions underlying respiratory distress, whether classified clinically as acute lung injury (ALI) or the more severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), has hampered efforts to ...

    Authors: Kang Fan and William A Nagle
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2002 2:5
  40. Tuberculosis is responsible for more female deaths around the earth than any other infectious disease. Reports have suggested that responses to tuberculosis may differ between men and women. We investigated ge...

    Authors: Peter Nsubuga, John L Johnson, Alphonse Okwera, Roy D Mugerwa, Jerrold J Ellner and Christopher C Whalen
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2002 2:4
  41. Lung function is a strong predictor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Previous studies suggest that alcohol exposure may be linked to impaired pulmonary function through oxidant-antioxidant mechanisms...

    Authors: Holger J Schünemann, Brydon JB Grant, Jo L Freudenheim, Paola Muti, Susan E McCann, Deepa Kudalkar, Malathi Ram, Tom Nochajski, Marcia Russell and Maurizio Trevisan
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2002 2:3
  42. Attempts at gene therapy for the pulmonary manifestations of Cystic Fibrosis have relied mainly on airway delivery. However the efficiency of gene transfer and expression in the airway epithelia has not reache...

    Authors: Ameet Bakhai, Desmond J Sheridan and Charles C Coutelle
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2002 2:2
  43. To determine the accuracy of serum-effusion albumin gradient (SEAG) and pleural fluid to serum albumin ratio (ALBR) in the diagnostic separation of pleural effusion into transudate and exudate and to compare S...

    Authors: Jose Joseph, Padmanabhan Badrinath, Gurnam S Basran and Steven A Sahn
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2002 2:1
  44. It is known that tissue and serum sialic acid levels may be altered by malignant transformation. In this study, sialic acid levels were determined in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and serum in two groups ...

    Authors: Turgut Isitmangil, Gulbu Isitmangil, Yasemin Budak, Recep Aydilek and Mehmet Kutlu Celenk
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2001 1:4
  45. Takayasu's arteritis is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease that usually affects the aorta, its primary branches and occasionally the pulmonary and coronary arteries. Female gender in reproductive age and ...

    Authors: Beatrice Neidhart, Robert Kosek, Lucas M Bachmann and Claudia Stey
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2001 1:3
  46. Since the sterilising activity of new antituberculosis drugs is difficult to assess by conventional phase III studies, surrogate methods related to eventual relapse rates are required.

    Authors: Richard Brindle, Joseph Odhiambo and Denis Mitchison
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2001 1:2

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