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Table 4 The combined effects of dietary antioxidant intake and environmental tobacco smoke on the risk for asthma

From: Modification of additive effect between vitamins and ETS on childhood asthma risk according to GSTP1 polymorphism : a cross -sectional study

Variable Wheezing symptoms in previous 12 months Asthma diagnosis
N (%) aORa (95 % CI) P-value N (%) aORa (95 % CI) P-value
Vitamin A ETS           
High No 6/148(3.90) 1.00     19/131(12.67) 1.00    
Low No 14/309(4.33) 1.59 (0.54 4.67) 0.40 24/290(7.64) 0.80 (0.39 1.64) 0.55
High Yes 6/89(6.32) 2.01 (0.61 6.64) 0.25 11/86(11.34) 0.98 (0.44 2.21) 0.96
Low Yes 17/62(9.50) 4.43 (1.51 12.96) <0.01 31/152(16.94) 2.23 (1.10 4.54) 0.03
Retinol ETS           
High No 5/149(3.25) 1.00     20/134(12.99) 1.00    
Low No 15/308(4.64) 2.67 (0.85 8.34) 0.09 23/287(7.42) 0.73 (0.36 1.49) 0.39
High Yes 8/83(8.79) 4.37 (1.30 14.63) 0.02 19/74(20.43) 2.16 (1.05 4.43) 0.04
Low Yes 15/168(8.20) 5.15 (1.63 16.25) 0.01 23/164(12.30) 1.29 (0.63 2.66) 0.49
Carotene ETS           
High No 7/144(4.64) 1.00     18/127(12.41) 1.00    
Low No 13/313(3.99) 0.88 (0.31 2.48) 0.81 25/294(7.84) 0.72 (0.36 1.46) 0.37
High Yes 8/90(8.16) 2.03 (0.69 6.00) 0.20 13/86(13.13) 1.16 (0.53 2.54) 0.71
Low Yes 15/161(8.52) 2.45 (0.87 6.85) 0.09 29/152(16.02) 1.84 (0.90 3.73) 0.09
Vitamin C ETS           
High No 7/153(4.38) 1.00     21/133(13.64) 1.00    
Low No 13/304(4.10) 1.09 (0.38 3.15) 0.87 22/288(7.10) 0.58 (0.28 1.18) 0.13
High Yes 9/90(9.09) 2.65 (0.92 7.64) 0.07 14/86(14.00) 1.13 (0.53 2.40) 0.75
Low Yes 14/161(8.00) 2.61 (0.90 7.59) 0.08 28/152(15.56) 1.55 (0.76 3.13) 0.23
Vitamin E ETS           
High No 9/166(5.14) 1.00     23/145(13.69) 1.00    
Low No 11/291(3.64) 0.78 (0.26 2.31) 0.65 20/276(6.76) 0.56 (0.26 1.21) 0.14
High Yes 11/84(11.58) 3.32 (1.25 8.80) 0.02 18/81(18.18) 1.67 (0.83 3.36) 0.15
Low Yes 12/167(6.70) 1.58 (0.54 4.64) 0.41 24/157(13.26) 1.22 (0.57 2.58) 0.61
  1. ETS environmental tobacco smoke
  2. aaOR: Adjusted for age, sex, BMI (continuous), parental history of asthma, maternal education, household income, and log-transformed total energy intake