(2014) Cancer Facts & Figures. American Cancer Society. www.cancer.org/acs/groups/content/@research/documents/webcontent/acspc-042151.pdf
Humphrey LL, Deffebach M, Pappas M, Baumann C, Artis K, Mitchell JP, et al. Screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography: a systematic review to update the US Preventive services task force recommendation. Ann Intern Med. 2013;159:411–20.
Aberle DR, Adams AM, Berg CD, Black WC, Clapp JD, Fagerstrom RM, et al. Reduced lung-cancer mortality with low-dose computed tomographic screening. N Engl J Med. 2011;365:395–409.
Bach PB, Mirkin JN, Oliver TK, Azzoli CG, Berry DA, Brawley OW, et al. Benefits and harms of CT screening for lung cancer: a systematic review. JAMA. 2012;307:2418–29.
Blomquist T, Crawford EL, Mullins D, Yoon Y, Hernandez DA, Khuder S, et al. Pattern of Antioxidant and DNA Repair Gene Expression in Normal Airway Epithelium Associated with Lung Cancer Diagnosis. Cancer Res. 2009;69:8629–35.
Bach PB, Kattan MW, Thornquist MD, Kris MG, Tate RC, Barnett MJ, et al. Variations in lung cancer risk among smokers. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003;95:470–8.
Raji OY, Duffy SW, Agbaje OF, Baker SG, Christiani DC, Cassidy A, et al. Predictive accuracy of the Liverpool Lung Project risk model for stratifying patients for computed tomography screening for lung cancer: a case–control and cohort validation study. Ann Intern Med. 2012;157:242–50.
Tammemagi CM, Pinsky PF, Caporaso NE, Kvale PA, Hocking WG, Church TR, et al. Lung Cancer Risk Prediction: Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial Models and Validation. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2011;103:1058–68.
Field JK, Baldwin D, Brain K, Devaraj A, Eisen T, Duffy SW, et al. CT screening for lung cancer in the UK: position statement by UKLS investigators following the NLST report. Thorax. 2011;66:736–7.
Cassidy A, Myles JP, van Tongeren M, Page RD, Liloglou T, Duffy SW, et al. The LLP risk model: an individual risk prediction model for lung cancer. Br J Cancer. 2008;98:270–6.
Spitz MR, Hong WK, Amos CI, Wu XF, Schabath MB, Dong Q, et al. A risk model for prediction of lung cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007;99:715–26.
van Klaveren RJ, Habbema JDF, Pedersen JH, de Koning HJ, Oudkerk M, Hoogsteden HC. Lung cancer screening by low-dose spiral computed tomography. Eur Respir J. 2001;18:857–66.
Kovalchik SA, Tammemagi M, Berg CD, Caporaso NE, Riley TL, Korch M, et al. Targeting of low-dose CT screening according to the risk of lung-cancer death. N Engl J Med. 2013;369:245–54.
Birse CE, Lagier RJ, FitzHugh W, Pass HI, Rom WN, Edell ES, et al. Blood-based lung cancer biomarkers identified through proteomic discovery in cancer tissues, cell lines and conditioned medium. Clin Proteomics. 2015;12:18.
Pecot CV, Li M, Zhang XJ, Rajanbabu R, Calitri C, Bungum A, et al. Added value of a serum proteomic signature in the diagnostic evaluation of lung nodules. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2012;21:786–92.
Daly S, Rinewalt D, Fhied C, Basu S, Mahon B, Liptay MJ, et al. Development and validation of a plasma biomarker panel for discerning clinical significance of indeterminate pulmonary nodules. J Thorac Oncol. 2013;8:31–6.
Mehan MR, Williams SA, Siegfried JM, Bigbee WL, Weissfeld JL, Weissfeld JL, et al. Validation of a blood protein signature for non-small cell lung cancer. Clin Proteomics. 2014;11:32.
Higgins G, Roper KM, Watson IJ, Blackhall FH, Rom WN, Pass HI, et al. Variant Ciz1 is a circulating biomarker for early-stage lung cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:E3128–3135.
Vachani A, Pass HI, Rom WN, Midthun DE, Edell ES, Laviolette M, et al. Validation of a multiprotein plasma classifier to identify benign lung nodules. J Thorac Oncol. 2015;10:629–37.
Cazzoli R, Buttitta F, Di Nicola M, Malatesta S, Marchetti A, Rom WN, et al. microRNAs derived from circulating exosomes as noninvasive biomarkers for screening and diagnosing lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol. 2013;8:1156–62.
Boeri M, Verri C, Conte D, Roz L, Modena P, Facchinetti F, et al. MicroRNA signatures in tissues and plasma predict development and prognosis of computed tomography detected lung cancer. Proc Nat Acad Sci. 2011;108:3713–8.
Spira A, Beane JE, Shah V, Steiling K, Liu G, Schembri F, et al. Airway epithelial gene expression in the diagnostic evaluation of smokers with suspect lung cancer. Nat Med. 2007;13:361–6.
Gower AC, Steiling K, Brothers 2nd JF, Lenburg ME, Spira A. Transcriptomic studies of the airway field of injury associated with smoking-related lung disease. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2011;8:173–9.
Silvestri GA, Vachani A, Whitney D, Elashoff M, Porta Smith K, Ferguson JS, et al. A Bronchial Genomic Classifier for the Diagnostic Evaluation of Lung Cancer. N Engl J Med. 2015;373:243–51.
Wang Z, Zhu B, Zhang M, Parikh H, Jia J, Chung CC, et al. Imputation and subset-based association analysis across different cancer types identifies multiple independent risk loci in the TERT-CLPTM1L region on chromosome 5p15.33. Hum Mol Genet. 2014;23:6616–33.
Wang Y, McKay JD, Rafnar T, Wang Z, Timofeeva MN, Broderick P, et al. Rare variants of large effect in BRCA2 and CHEK2 affect risk of lung cancer. Nature genetics. 2014;46:736–41.
Blomquist TM, Crawford EL, Willey JC. Cis-acting genetic variation at an E2F1/YY1 response site and putative p53 site is associated with altered allele-specific expression of ERCC5 (XPG) transcript in normal human bronchial epithelium. Carcinogenesis. 2010;31:1242–50.
Blomquist TM, Brown RD, Crawford EL, de la Serna I, Williams K, Yoon Y, et al. CEBPG Exhibits Allele-Specific Expression in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells. Gene Regul Syst Bio. 2013;7:125–38.
Blomquist TM, Crawford EL, Lovett JL, Yeo J, Stanoszek LM, Levin A, et al. Targeted RNA-sequencing with competitive multiplex-PCR amplicon libraries. PLoS One. 2013;8, e79120.
Mannino DM, Aguayo SM, Petty TL, Redd SC. Low lung function and incident lung cancer in the United States: data From the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey follow-up. Arch Intern Med. 2003;163:1475–80.
Schwartz AG. Genetic epidemiology of cigarette smoke-induced lung disease. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2012;9:22–6.
de-Torres JP, Wilson DO, Sanchez-Salcedo P, Weissfeld JL, Berto J, Campo A, et al. Lung cancer in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Development and validation of the COPD Lung Cancer Screening Score. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015;191:285–91.
Young RP, Hopkins RJ, Christmas T, Black PN, Metcalf P, Gamble GD. COPD prevalence is increased in lung cancer, independent of age, sex and smoking history. Eur Respir J. 2009;34:380–6.
Mayne ST, Buenconsejo J, Janerich DT. Previous lung disease and risk of lung cancer among men and women nonsmokers. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;149:13–20.
Tockman MS, Anthonisen NR, Wright EC, Donithan MG. Airways obstruction and the risk for lung cancer. Ann Intern Med. 1987;106:512–8.
Skillrud DM, Offord KP, Miller RD. Higher risk of lung cancer in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A prospective, matched, controlled study. Ann Intern Med. 1986;105:503–7.
Purdue MP, Gold L, Jarvholm B, Alavanja MC, Ward MH, Vermeulen R. Impaired lung function and lung cancer incidence in a cohort of Swedish construction workers. Thorax. 2007;62:51–6.
Wasswa-Kintu S, Gan WQ, Man SFP, Pare PD, Sin DD. Relationship between reduced forced expiratory volume in one second and the risk of lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Thorax. 2005;60:570–5.
Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Revised 2015. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). www.goldcopd.org.
Bach PB, Jett JR, Pastorino U, Tockman MS, Swensen SJ, Begg CB. COmputed tomography screening and lung cancer outcomes. JAMA. 2007;297:953–61.
Crawford EL, Khuder SA, Durham SJ, Frampton M, Utell M, Thilly WG, et al. Normal bronchial epithelial cell expression of glutathione transferase P1, glutathione transferase M3, and glutathione peroxidase is low in subjects with bronchogenic carcinoma. Cancer Res. 2000;60:1609–18.
Willey JC, Coy E, Brolly C, Utell MJ, Frampton MW, Hammersley J, et al. Xenobiotic metabolism enzyme gene expression in human bronchial epithelial and alveolar macrophage cells. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1996;14:262–71.
Crawford EL, Blomquist T, Mullins DN, Yoon Y, Hernandez DR, Al-Bagdhadi M, et al. CEBPG regulates ERCC5/XPG expression in human bronchial epithelial cells and this regulation is modified by E2F1/YY1 interactions. Carcinogenesis. 2007;28:2552–9.
Willey JC, Coy EL, Frampton MW, Torres A, Apostolakos MJ, Hoehn G, et al. Quantitative RT-PCR measurement of cytochromes p450 1A1, 1B1, and 2B7, microsomal epoxide hydrolase, and NADPH oxidoreductase expression in lung cells of smokers and nonsmokers. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1997;17:114–24.
Romagnoli M, Vachier I, Vignola AM, Godard P, Bousquet J, Chanez P. Safety and cellular assessment of bronchial brushing in airway diseases. Respir Med. 1999;93:461–6.
Lo Tam Loi AT, Hoonhorst SJM, Franciosi L, Bischoff R, Hoffmann RF, Heijink I, et al. Acute and chronic inflammatory responses induced by smoking in individuals susceptible and non-susceptible to development of COPD: from specific disease phenotyping towards novel therapy. Protocol of a cross-sectional study. BMJ Open. 2013;3.
Kim V, Oros M, Durra H, Kelsen S, Aksoy M, Cornwell WD, et al. Chronic Bronchitis and Current Smoking Are Associated with More Goblet Cells in Moderate to Severe COPD and Smokers without Airflow Obstruction. PLoS ONE. 2015;10, e0116108.
Barnes NC, Saetta M, Rabe KF. Implementing lessons learned from previous bronchial biopsy trials in a new randomized controlled COPD biopsy trial with roflumilast. BMC Pulm Med. 2014;14:9.
Eissa NT, Erzurum SC. Flexible bronchoscopy in molecular biology. Clin Chest Med. 2001;22(343–353):ix.
Asano F, Aoe M, Ohsaki Y, Okada Y, Sasada S, Sato S, et al. Deaths and complications associated with respiratory endoscopy: A survey by the Japan Society for Respiratory Endoscopy in 2010. Respirology. 2012;17:478–85.
Jin F, Mu D, Chu D, Fu E, Xie Y, Liu T. Severe complications of bronchoscopy. Respiration. 2008;76:429–33.
Facciolongo N, Patelli M, Gasparini S, Lazzari Agli L, Salio M, Simonassi C, et al. Incidence of complications in bronchoscopy. Multicentre prospective study of 20,986 bronchoscopies. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis. 2009;71:8–14.
Fisher DA, Maple JT, Ben-Menachem T, Cash BD, Decker GA, Early DS, et al. Complications of colonoscopy. Gastrointest Endosc. 2011;74:745–52.
Ko CW, Riffle S, Michaels L, Morris C, Holub J, Shapiro JA, et al. Serious complications within 30 days of screening and surveillance colonoscopy are uncommon. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010;8:166–73.
Hattotuwa K, Gamble EA, O’Shaughnessy T, Jeffery PK, Barnes NC. Safety of bronchoscopy, biopsy, and bal in research patients with COPD. Chest. 2002;122:1909–12.
Aldrich MC, Munro HM, Mumma M, Grogan EL, Massion PP, Blackwell TS, et al. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and subsequent overall and lung cancer mortality in low-income adults. PLoS One. 2015;10, e0121805.
Barr RG, Herbstman J, Speizer FE, Camargo Jr CA. Validation of self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a cohort study of nurses. Am J Epidemiol. 2002;155:965–71.
Eisner MD, Trupin L, Katz PP, Yelin EH, Earnest G, Balmes J, et al. Development and validation of a survey-based COPD severity score. Chest. 2005;127:1890–7.
Straus SE, McAlister FA, Sackett DL, Deeks JJ. Accuracy of history, wheezing, and forced expiratory time in the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Gen Intern Med. 2002;17:684–8.
Zhai R, Yu X, Shafer A, Wain JC, Christiani DC. The impact of coexisting COPD on survival of patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer undergoing surgical resection. Chest. 2014;145:346–53.