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Table 1 Characteristics of the study populationparticipants with airflow limitation

From: Underdiagnosis of obstructive lung disease: findings from the French CONSTANCES cohort

  All (N = 765) Men (N = 385) Women (N = 380) P
Gender, %     
 Men 54.7    
 Women 45.3    
Age (years), m 44.4 46.5 41.9 0.002
ISCED education level, %     
 0–2 (≤ lower secondary) 14.1 16.9 10.7 0.21
 3–4 (upper secondary) 39.5 41.2 37.4  
 5–6 (short-cycle tertiary/bachelor) 30.0 27.0 33.5  
 7–8 (master/doctorate) 16.5 14.9 18.4  
Tobacco status, %     
 Never 31.8 28.9 38.7 0.01
 Ever < 10 pack-years 29.5 26.1 33.7  
 Ever ≥ 10 pack-years 37.3 45.0 27.5  
Pack-years in smokers, m 18.4 22.9 11.8  < 0.001
BMI (kg/m2), m 25.0 25.4 24.5 0.17
Respiratory symptoms, %     
 Past-year wheezing 40.3 44.8 34.9 0.08
 Chronic cough 17.0 18.8 15.0 0.38
 Chronic sputum 12.5 15.1 9.4 0.16
 Dyspnoea ≥ grade 2 19.9 16.1 24.6 0.07
  ≥ 1 symptom 51.9 52.9 50.7 0.69
OLD history, %     
 Asthma 29.6 26.0 33.9 0.11
 COPD/Emphysema/Chronic bronchitis 8.1 11.4 4.1 0.02
 Bronchiectasis 0.1 0.1 0.1
  ≥ 1 OLD 35.6 35.9 35.3 0.91
Cardiovascular history, %     
 IHD, stroke, PAD 3.4 5.5 1.0 0.03
 Other 11.6 11.8 11.3  
Lung function     
 FEV1% predicted, m 75.3 72.5 76.4  < 0.001
 FVC% predicted, m 92.9 90.4 93.2 0.003
 FEV1/FVC% predicted 80.5 79.7 80.8 0.003
 GOLD severity, %     
  Mild 39.2 35.3 44.0 0.01
  Moderate 53.5 53.4 53.6  
  Severe 7.3 11.2 2.5  
  1. BMI body mass index; COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; FEV1 forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FVC forced vital capacity; GOLD Global Initiative on Obstructive Lung Disease; IHD ischemic heart disease; ISCED International Standard Classification of Education; OLD obstructive lung disease; PAD peripheral arterial disease; P P value for the comparison of men and women
  2. Data are presented as weighted percentage (%) or mean (m)
  3. Missing values in 95 participants (10 for education level, 90 for tobacco status, 5 for BMI, 2 for respiratory symptoms)