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  1. Asthma exacerbation threatens patient's life. Several genetic studies have been conducted to determine the risk factors for asthma exacerbation, but this information is still lacking. We aimed to determine whe...

    Authors: Min-Hye Kim, Hun Soo Chang, Jong-Uk Lee, Ji-Su Shim, Jong-Sook Park, Young-Joo Cho and Choon-Sik Park
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2022 22:3
  2. Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and CYFRA21-1 are the commonly used biomarkers to identify patients with autoimmune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (APAP). However, it is not c...

    Authors: Jiu-Wu Bai, Shui-Yi Gu, Xiao-Li Sun, Hai-Wen Lu, Shuo Liang and Jin-Fu Xu
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2022 22:2
  3. Quantitative evaluation of radiographic images has been developed and suggested for the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, there are limited opportunities to use these image-based diagn...

    Authors: Daisuke Yamada, Sachiko Ohde, Ryosuke Imai, Kengo Ikejima, Masaki Matsusako and Yasuyuki Kurihara
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2022 22:1
  4. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a bronchopulmonary disease caused by a complex hypersensitivity to Aspergillus and is usually associated with underlying respiratory diseases such as asthma or cy...

    Authors: N. Benkalfate, S. Dirou, P. Germaud, C. Defrance, A. Cavailles, T. Pigeanne, M. Robert, T. Madjer, F. Corne, L. Cellerin, C. Sagan and F. X. Blanc
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:425
  5. To evaluate cytokine profile, vitamin D status, symptom score and quality of life in patients with persistent allergic airway diseases sensitised to house dust mites (HDM) in comparison with healthy individuals.

    Authors: Laura Tamasauskiene and Brigita Sitkauskiene
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:424
  6. Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) elastography has been used in EBUS-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) to identify malignant lymph nodes based on tissue stiffness. Rapid onsite cytological eval...

    Authors: Jing Huang, Yuan Lu, Xihua Wang, Xiaoli Zhu, Ping Li, Jing Chen, Pingsheng Chen and Ming Ding
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:423
  7. Self-administration of helminths has gained attention among patients as a potential but unproven therapy for autoimmune disease. We present a case of rapidly progressive respiratory failure in a patient with s...

    Authors: Anahit A. Zeynalyan, Balaji Kolasani, Chetan Naik, Christopher J. G. Sigakis, Leann Silhan and Susan K. Mathai
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:422
  8. In recent years, immunotherapies and targeted therapies contribute to population-level improvement in NSCLC cancer-specific survival, however, the two novel therapeutic options have mainly benefit patients con...

    Authors: Liyuan Song, Xianhui Wang, Wang Cheng, Yi Wu, Min Liu, Ruizi Liu, Shenyi Zhang, Hong Xia, Hao Liu, Xuejiao Tai, Huzi Zhao, Xihua Li and Fuyun Ji
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:420
  9. Relapse after effective bronchial arterial embolization (BAE) for controlling hemoptysis is not uncommon. Studies reported diverse predictors of recurrence. However, a model to assess the probability of recurr...

    Authors: Hai-Tao Yan, Guang-Dong Lu, Xiang-Zhong Huang, Da-Zhong Zhang, Kun-Yuan Ge, Jin-Xing Zhang, Jin Liu, Sheng Liu, Hai-Bin Shi and Qing-Quan Zu
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:419
  10. Mechanisms of positive effects of pulmonary artery (PA) denervation (PADN) remain poorly understood. The study aimed to evaluate pulmonary hemodynamic changes after PADN and their association with the extent o...

    Authors: Natalia S. Goncharova, Heber Ivan Condori Leandro, Aleksandr D. Vakhrushev, Elena G. Koshevaya, Yury A. Skorik, Lubov B. Mitrofanova, Lada A. Murashova, Lev E. Korobchenko, Elizaveta M. Andreeva, Dmitry S. Lebedev, Olga M. Moiseeva and Evgeny N. Mikhaylov
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:418
  11. Benralizumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting the human interleukin-5 (IL-5) receptor (IL-5R), was used before marketing authorisation in Spain in a real world setting as part of an early-access programme (EAP...

    Authors: Eva Martínez-Moragón, Ismael García-Moguel, Javier Nuevo and Gustavo Resler
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:417
  12. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis share commonalities in pathogenesis shifting haemostasis balance towards the procoagulant and antifibrinolytic activity. Several stu...

    Authors: Małgorzata Sobiecka, Monika Szturmowicz, Katarzyna Lewandowska, Agata Kowalik, Ewa Łyżwa, Katarzyna Zimna, Inga Barańska, Lilia Jakubowska, Jan Kuś, Renata Langfort and Witold Tomkowski
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:416
  13. Asthma is the most commonly occurring respiratory illness during pregnancy. Associations with complications of pregnancy and adverse perinatal outcome have been established. However, little is known about qual...

    Authors: Nasrin Fazel, Michael Kundi, Erika Jensen-Jarolim, Isabella Maria Pali-Schöll, Asghar Kazemzadeh, Habibollah Esmaily, Mojtaba Fattahi Abdizadeh, Roya Akbarzadeh, Raheleh Ahmadi and Hossain Jabbari
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:415
  14. The use of galactomannan (GM) testing in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) has improved the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disea...

    Authors: Qian He, Ming Zhang and Chunlai Feng
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:414
  15. Immunoglobulin G4-related lung disease (IgG4-RLD) is a rare entity. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical and histopathological characteristics of patients with pathologically confirmed IgG4-RLD to improve ...

    Authors: Jia Liu, Yuxiang Liu, Ximing Shen, Zhanghai He, Tingfeng Yu, Li Pang, Xiaoyan Jin and Lingyun Wang
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:413
  16. Research questions To compare the efficacy of nintedanib and pirfenidone in the treatment of progressive pulmonary fibrosis; and to compare the efficacy of anti-fibrotic therapy (grouping nintedanib and pirfenido...

    Authors: James Patrick Finnerty, Aravind Ponnuswamy, Prosjenjit Dutta, Ammar Abdelaziz and Hafiz Kamil
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:411
  17. Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common cause for hospitalization associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Disorders of calcium metabolism are a frequently encountered medical problem. The effect...

    Authors: Mukunthan Murthi, Hafeez Shaka, Zain El-amir, Sujitha Velagapudi, Abdul Jamil, Farah Wani, Ramtej Atluri, Akshay Kumar and Asim Kichloo
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:410
  18. The nutritional status can potentially affect the efficacy of cancer therapy. The Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI), a simple index for evaluating nutritional status calculated from body weight and serum...

    Authors: Masato Karayama, Yusuke Inoue, Hideki Yasui, Hironao Hozumi, Yuzo Suzuki, Kazuki Furuhashi, Tomoyuki Fujisawa, Noriyuki Enomoto, Yutaro Nakamura, Naoki Inui and Takafumi Suda
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:409
  19. Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is the second most common nosocomial infection in intensive care units (ICUs). The present study aims to determine the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria, their biofilm formati...

    Authors: Farzad Mazloomirad, Sajad Hasanzadeh, Asghar Sharifi, Gordafarin Nikbakht, Narges Roustaei and Seyed Sajjad Khoramrooz
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:408
  20. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a type of pulmonary hypertension caused by persistent thromboembolism of the pulmonary arteries. In clinical practice, CTEPH patients often show obstruc...

    Authors: Asako Yanagisawa, Akira Naito, Takayuki Jujo-Sanada, Nobuhiro Tanabe, Keiichi Ishida, Goro Matsumiya, Rika Suda, Hajime Kasai, Ayumi Sekine, Toshihiko Sugiura, Ayako Shigeta, Seiichiro Sakao, Koichiro Tatsumi and Takuji Suzuki
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:407
  21. Diagnosis of pneumonia is critical in managing patients with febrile neutropenia (FN), however, chest X-ray (CXR) has limited performance in the detection of pneumonia. We aimed to evaluate the performance of ...

    Authors: Eui Jin Hwang, Jong Hyuk Lee, Jae Hyun Kim, Woo Hyeon Lim, Jin Mo Goo and Chang Min Park
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:406
  22. Patients with influenza pneumonia are at high risk of rapid progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Mean platelet volume (MPV), which reflects platelet size, is considered to be a crucial in...

    Authors: Teeraphat Reangvilaikul, Piyaphat Udompongpaiboon and Veerapong Vattanavanit
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:405
  23. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating disease with a high clinical burden. The molecular signatures of IPF were analyzed to distinguish molecular subgroups and identify key driver genes and ther...

    Authors: Sung Kyoung Kim, Seung Min Jung, Kyung-Su Park and Ki-Jo Kim
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:404
  24. To meet the surging demands for intubation and invasive ventilation as more COVID-19 patients begin their recovery, clinicians are challenged to find an ultra-brief and minimally invasive screen for postextuba...

    Authors: Shu-Fen Siao, Wen-Hsuan Tseng, Tyng-Guey Wang, Yu-Chung Wei, Tzu-Yu Hsiao, Shih-Chi Ku and Cheryl Chia-Hui Chen
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:403
  25. Eosinophilic pleural effusion (EPE) is a distinct entity among pleural effusions, but its diagnostic and prognostic significance is still controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and aetiologi...

    Authors: Minfang Li, Yunxiang Zeng, Yaqing Li, Dan Jia, Sheng Chen and Jinlin Wang
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:402
  26. Association between sleep nocturnal breathing disorders and acute aortic syndrome (AAS) has been described but mid-term data are scarce.

    Authors: Pascal Delsart, Jerome Soquet, Adeline Pierache, Maxime Dedeken, Stephanie Fry, Anne Mallart, François Pontana, Richard Azzaoui, Francis Juthier, Jonathan Sobocinski and Claire Mounier-Vehier
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:401
  27. Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide due to the lack of early diagnostic markers and specific drugs. Previous studies have shown the association of LUAD growth with aberra...

    Authors: Gongjun Wang, Weiwei Qi, Liwei Shen, Shasha Wang, Ruoxi Xiao, Wenqian Li, Yuqi Zhang, Xiaoqian Bian, Libin Sun and Wensheng Qiu
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:400
  28. Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB), obesity, and malnutrition are growing public health problems in the world. However, little has discussed the impact of different BMI status on the emergence of TB drug resi...

    Authors: Wan-mei Song, Jing Guo, Ting-ting Xu, Shi-jin Li, Jin-yue Liu, Ning-ning Tao, Yao Liu, Qian-yun Zhang, Si-qi Liu, Qi-qi An, Yi-fan Li, Chun-bao Yu, Ji-hua Dong and Huai-chen Li
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:399
  29. Recent asthma guidelines, such as the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA), recommend in adult patients as-needed inhaled corticosteroids (ICS)-formoterol as an alternative to maintenance ICS in mild to moderat...

    Authors: Jefferson Antonio Buendía and Diana Guerrero Patiño
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:397
  30. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by a poor prognosis, with a progressive decline in lung function and considerable variability in the disease’s natural history. Besides lung transplantatio...

    Authors: Gian Marco Manzetti, Karishma Hosein, Matthew J. Cecchini, Keith Kwan, Mohamed Abdelrazek, Maurizio Zompatori, Paola Rogliani and Marco Mura
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:396
  31. Sarcoidosis is granulomatous disease of unknown origin affecting organ function and quality of life. The King’s Sarcoidosis Questionnaire (KSQ) serves as a tool to assess quality of life in sarcoidosis patient...

    Authors: Björn Christian Frye, Laura Potasso, Erik Farin-Glattacker, Surrinder Birring, Joachim Müller-Quernheim and Jonas Christian Schupp
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:395
  32. Home mechanical ventilation (HMV) is a viable and effective strategy for patients with chronic respiratory failure (CRF). The Chilean Ministry of Health started a program for adults in 2008.

    Authors: César Maquilón, Mónica Antolini, Nicolás Valdés, Marianela Andrade, Krishnna Canales, Claudio Rabec, Cristian Olave, Miguel Aguayo, Patricia Rivas, Carmen Andrade, Ángela Venegas, Sandra Zapata, María Elena Torres, Osvaldo Cabrera and Jorge Villalobos
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:394
  33. Some studies previously demonstrated that interleukin-17 (IL-17) involves in pulmonary diseases progression. Nevertheless, the role of IL-17 in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains unknown. This study ai...

    Authors: Chun-Mei Feng, Xin-Ming Wang, Meng-Die Li, Zheng Xu, Dong-Xu Hua, Jia-Yi Cheng, Ling Zheng, Hui Zhao and Lin Fu
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:393
  34. The burden of hospitalizations and mortality for hemoptysis due to bronchiectasis is not well characterized. The primary outcome of our study was to evaluate in-hospital mortality in patients admitted with hem...

    Authors: Rachel K. Lim, Alain Tremblay, Shengjie Lu and Ranjani Somayaji
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:392
  35. Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality, and cesarean section is an established independent risk factor for PE. The diagnostic utility of D-dimer for PE in non-pregnant...

    Authors: Limin Zhang, Yunqiu Chen, Wenjuan Liu, Xinzhuo Wang, Shuang Zhang, Wenyan Zhang, Shuai Zhao, Miaomiao Zhang, Su Zhang and Guangyu Jiao
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:391
  36. As lung transplantation (LTX) is a valuable treatment procedure for end-stage pulmonary disease, delayed referral to a transplant center should be avoided. We aimed to conduct a single-center analysis of the s...

    Authors: Takashi Hirama, Miki Akiba, Tatsuaki Watanabe, Yui Watanabe, Hirotsugu Notsuda, Hisashi Oishi, Hiromichi Niikawa and Yoshinori Okada
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:390
  37. There is little evidence about the factors that predict persistence/adherence in treatment-naïve patients with COPD in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to evaluate persistence and adherence levels ...

    Authors: Elsa López-Pintor, Justo Grau and Blanca Lumbreras
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:388

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2022 22:82

  38. Given the increased incidence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) among patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), noninvasive screening methods are urgently needed to screen for OSA risk in these pa...

    Authors: Yang-Bor Lu, Yu-Chieh Weng, Yung-Ning Huang, Hsiung-Ying Huang, Pei-Ting Cheng, Hui-Shan Hsieh and Ming-Shao Tsai
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:387
  39. There is a lack of studies comparing PCT, CRP and WBC levels in the differential diagnosis of acute bacterial, viral, and mycoplasmal respiratory tract infections. It is necessary to explore the correlation be...

    Authors: Yang Li, Lanfang Min and Xin Zhang
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:386
  40. Allergic asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory disease with a number of cytokines participating in its pathogenesis and progress. Interleukin (IL)-22, which is derived from lymphocytes, acts on epithelial ce...

    Authors: Jingru Wang, Shengnan Gao, Jingyuan Zhang, Chunxiao Li, Hongwen Li and Jiangtao Lin
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:385
  41. Remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a central mechanism in the progression of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and remodeling of type VI collagen has been suggested to be associated with diseas...

    Authors: Henrik Jessen, Nils Hoyer, Thomas S. Prior, Peder Frederiksen, Sarah R. Rønnow, Morten A. Karsdal, Diana J. Leeming, Elisabeth Bendstrup, Jannie M. B. Sand and Saher B. Shaker
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:382
  42. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    Authors: Jing Ning, Shenyi Jiang, Xiaoxi Li, Yang Wang, Xuhong Deng, Zhiqiang Zhang, Lijie He, Daqing Wang and Youhong Jiang
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:381

    The original article was published in BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:199

  43. Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common cause of atypical community acquired pneumonia (CAP). The diagnostic approach of chlamydial infections remains a challenge. Diagnosis of delayed chlamydial-associated complication...

    Authors: Konstantinos G. Kyriakoulis, Anastasios Kollias, George E. Diakos, Ioannis P. Trontzas, Eleni Fyta, Nikolaos K. Syrigos and Garyphallia Poulakou
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:380
  44. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in premature infants, characterized by alveolar dysplasia and pulmonary microvascular remodeling. In the present study, we have inve...

    Authors: Yue Zhu, Huimin Ju, Hongyan Lu, Wei Tang, Junying Lu and Qiuxia Wang
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:379

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