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  1. Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is an important diagnosis in critical care. VAP research is complicated by the lack of agreed diagnostic criteria and reference standard test criteria. Our aim was to revi...

    Authors: Basem Al-Omari, Peter McMeekin, A. Joy Allen, Ahsan R. Akram, Sara Graziadio, Jana Suklan, William S. Jones, B. Clare Lendrem, Amanda Winter, Milo Cullinan, Joanne Gray, Kevin Dhaliwal, Timothy S. Walsh and Thomas H. Craven

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:196

    Content type: Research article

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  2. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Taotao Liu, Qinyu Zhao and Bin Du

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:194

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:160

  3. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Tang-Hsiu Huang, Chin-Wei Kuo, Chian-Wei Chen, Yau-Lin Tseng, Chao-Liang Wu and Sheng-Hsiang Lin

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:193

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:165

  4. The overweight/obese population (evaluated by a body mass index, BMI) represents a global health problem and contributes to the development of various chronic diseases. In this epidemiological study we evaluat...

    Authors: D. Nugmanova, Y. Feshchenko, L. Iashyna, M. Polianska, K. Malynovska, I. Stafeyeva, J. Makarova and A. Vasylyev

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:192

    Content type: Research article

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  5. The echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like-4 anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK) fusion gene was identified in a subset of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. They responded positively to AL...

    Authors: Ying Li, Yongwen Li, Hongbing Zhang, Ruifeng Shi, Zihe Zhang, Hongyu Liu and Jun Chen

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:190

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Different from current cognition, our study demonstrated that adrenergic receptors agonist phenylephrine significantly relaxed isolated pulmonary artery but constricted pulmonary veins. Through comparing diffe...

    Authors: Li-mei Liao, Li Zhou, Chen-ran Wang, Jian-ying Hu, Yao-jun Lu and Shaoqiang Huang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:189

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is a degenerative interstitial lung disease with both a poor prognosis and quality of life once the diagnosis is made. In the last decade many features of the disease have b...

    Authors: Donato Lacedonia, Giulia Scioscia, Piera Soccio, Massimo Conese, Lucia Catucci, Grazia P. Palladino, Filomena Simone, Carla M. I. Quarato, Sante Di Gioia, Roberto Rana, Francesco Sollitto and Maria P. Foschino-Barbaro

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:188

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Previous studies suggest that transient receptor potential (TRP) channels and neurogenic inflammation may be involved in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF)-related high cough sensitivity, although the details...

    Authors: Mengyue Guan, Sun Ying and Yuguang Wang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:187

    Content type: Research

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  9. Acute exacerbation (AE) of interstitial pneumonia (IP) is the most fatal complication after lung resection for lung cancer. To improve the prognosis of lung cancer with IP, the risk factors of AE of IP after l...

    Authors: Atsushi Kagimoto, Yasuhiro Tsutani, Kei Kushitani, Takahiro Kambara, Takahiro Mimae, Yoshihiro Miyata, Yukio Takeshima and Morihito Okada

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:186

    Content type: Research

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  10. It is not well-known if diagnosing and treating sleep breathing disorders among individuals with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) improves health outcomes. We evaluated the association between receipt of la...

    Authors: Nicholas T. Vozoris, Andrew S. Wilton, Peter C. Austin, Tetyana Kendzerska, Clodagh M. Ryan and Andrea S. Gershon

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:185

    Content type: Research

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  11. Current interstitial lung disease (ILD) diagnostic guidelines assess criteria across clinical, radiologic and pathologic domains. Significant interobserver variation in histopathologic evaluation has previousl...

    Authors: Robert Camp, Maxwell L. Smith, Brandon T. Larsen, Anja C. Roden, Carol Farver, Andre L. Moreira, Richard Attanoos, Raghavendra Pillappa, Irene Sansano, Alexandre Todorovic Fabro and Robert J. Homer

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:184

    Content type: Research

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  12. Heterogeneity in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has led to many statistically negative clinical trials. Etiology is considered an important source of pathogenesis heterogeneity in ARDS but previous...

    Authors: Sheng-Yuan Ruan, Chun-Ta Huang, Ying-Chun Chien, Chun-Kai Huang, Jung-Yien Chien, Lu-Cheng Kuo, Ping-Hung Kuo, Shih-Chi Ku and Huey-Dong Wu

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:183

    Content type: Research

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  13. Pneumothorax is one complication of transbronchial biopsy (TBB) using endobronchial ultrasonography with a guide sheath (EBUS-GS-TBB). We sought to clarify the risk factors for pneumothorax after EBUS-GS-TBB u...

    Authors: Yusuke Gotoh, Teppei Yamaguchi, Hiroshi Yatsuya, Aki Ikeda, Takuya Okamura, Yosuke Sakakibara, Takuma Ina, Yuri Maeda, Mariko Hirochi, Hisashi Kako, Yasuhiro Goto, Sumito Isogai, Naoki Yamamoto, Masashi Kondo and Kazuyoshi Imaizumi

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:181

    Content type: Research

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  14. Although depression is a common comorbidity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the role of sex remains unexplored. We evaluated sex differences of risk factors of depressive symptoms in adults wi...

    Authors: Ji Soo Choi, Se Hyun Kwak, Nak-Hoon Son, Jae Won Oh, San Lee and Eun Hye Lee

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:180

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Worldwide, pneumonia is the third leading cause of death in under 5 years children. Ethiopia is ranked 4th out of 15 countries having the highest burdens of the death rate among under-five children due to pneu...

    Authors: Muluken Genetu Chanie, Mequannent Sharew Melaku, Melaku Yalew, Mastewal Arefaynie, Gedamnesh Bitew, Erkihun Tadesse Amsalu, Bereket Kefale, Amare Muche, Zinabu Fentaw, Reta Dewau, Bezawit Adane, Yitayish Damtie, Wolde Melese Ayele, Gojjam Eshetie Ewunetie and Metadel Adane

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:179

    Content type: Research

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  16. The excess adiposity, even in the absence of diseases, is responsible for a decline in pulmonary function, which is considered a predictor of mortality and a risk factor for diseases in several epidemiological...

    Authors: Caren Ishikawa, Marco Antonio Barbieri, Heloisa Bettiol, Gabriel Bazo, Alexandre A. Ferraro and Elcio Oliveira Vianna

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:178

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) patients usually have elevated D-dimer levels. The diagnostic performance of D-dimer in predicting pulmonary embolism (PE) in the TPE population is unclear. This study aimed ...

    Authors: Xiaoming Li, Yajing Qin, Wenjing Ye, Xi Chen, Dezhi Sun, Xuejun Guo and Wen Gu

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:177

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) often requires controlled ventilation, yielding high mechanical power and possibly further injury. Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) can be us...

    Authors: Malou Janssen, J. Han. J. Meeder, Leonard Seghers and Corstiaan A. den Uil

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:176

    Content type: Case report

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  19. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an important risk factor for postoperative complications and mortality. To determine the effects of perioperative combination therapy, using a long-acting muscar...

    Authors: Yoko Azuma, Atsushi Sano, Takashi Sakai, Satoshi Koezuka, Hajime Otsuka, Naobumi Tochigi, Kazutoshi Isobe, Susumu Sakamoto, Yujiro Takai and Akira Iyoda

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:174

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and the development of life-threatening COVID-19 are believed to disproportionately affect certain at-risk populations. However, it is not...

    Authors: Hannah R. Mathew, May Y. Choi, Michael D. Parkins and Marvin J. Fritzler

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:173

    Content type: Research article

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  21. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of osimertinib (OSI) versus afatinib (AFA) in patients with T790M-positive, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and multiple central nervous system (CNS) me...

    Authors: Yang Yang, Qilong Liu, Lei Cao, Wei Sun, Xiaowei Gu, Bin Liu, Na Xiao, Fei Teng, Xiaoli Li, Meiji Chen, Weiguang Yu, Huanyi Lin and Guixing Xu

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:172

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Life-threatening hemoptysis presents an immediate diagnostic and therapeutic challenge, especially during the perinatal period.

    Authors: Yujun Li, Yuyao Wang, Zhike Liang, Chuzhi Pan, Xiaomei Huang, Zexun Mo, Guodong Chen, Dongliang Zhu, Ziwen Zhao and Shuquan Wei

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:171

    Content type: Case report

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  23. Despite the severe symptoms experienced by dying COPD patients, specialized palliative care (SPC) services focus mainly on cancer patients. We aimed to study the access to SPC that COPD and lung cancer (LC) pa...

    Authors: Peter Strang, Per Fürst, Christel Hedman, Jenny Bergqvist, Helena Adlitzer and Torbjörn Schultz

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:170

    Content type: Research

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  24. Oroscomucoid 3 (ORMDL3) has been linked to susceptibility of childhood asthma and respiratory viral infection. Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) is a synthetic analog of viral double-stranded RNA, a t...

    Authors: Gemma Laura, Yi Liu, Kieran Fernandes, Saffron A. G. Willis-Owen, Kazuhiro Ito, William O. Cookson, Miriam F. Moffatt and Youming Zhang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:167

    Content type: Research

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  25. Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is known to be one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths globally. In recent decades, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been indicated to exert pivotal regulating function...

    Authors: Honggang Kang, Dan Ma, Jing Zhang, Jun Zhao and Mengxiang Yang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:166

    Content type: Research

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  26. Nintedanib is effective for treating idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), but some patients may exhibit a suboptimal response and develop on-treatment acute exacerbation (AE-IPF), hepatic injury, or mortality....

    Authors: Tang-Hsiu Huang, Chin-Wei Kuo, Chian-Wei Chen, Yau-Lin Tseng, Chao-Liang Wu and Sheng-Hsiang Lin

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:165

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:193

  27. In this retrospective observational study, we analyzed all patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension undergoing LenusPro® pump implantation between November 2013 and October 2019 at our center. Periprocedu...

    Authors: Jan C. Kamp, Jan Fuge, Jan F. Karsten, Stefan Rümke, Marius M. Hoeper, Da-Hee Park, Christian Kühn and Karen M. Olsson

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:164

    Content type: Research

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  28. ID1 is associated with resistance to the first generation of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the effect of ID1 expression on osimertinib resistance i...

    Authors: Kejun Liu, Xianwen Chen, Ligang Wu, Shiyuan Chen, Nianxin Fang, Limin Cai and Jun Jia

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:163

    Content type: Research

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  29. No national research has yet explored the prevalence of asthma among adults in Lebanon. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma and current asthma, and their determinants among...

    Authors: Zeina Akiki, Danielle Saadeh, Rita Farah, Souheil Hallit, Hala Sacre, Hassan Hosseini and Pascale Salameh

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:162

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Suspicion and clinical criteria continue to serve as the foundation for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) diagnosis, however the criteria used to diagnose VAP vary widely. Data from head-to-head comparison...

    Authors: Farshid Rahimibashar, Andrew C. Miller, Mojtaba H. Yaghoobi and Amir Vahedian-Azimi

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:161

    Content type: Research article

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  31. To investigate the indications for high-flow nasal cannula oxygen (HFNC) therapy in patients with hypoxemia during ventilator weaning and to explore the predictors of reintubation when treatment fails.

    Authors: Taotao Liu, Qinyu Zhao and Bin Du

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:160

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:194

  32. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous disease with a complex progression of many clinical presentations, and clinically important deterioration (CID) has been proposed in the Western ...

    Authors: Yuki Abe, Masaru Suzuki, Hironi Makita, Hirokazu Kimura, Kaoruko Shimizu, Satoshi Konno and Masaharu Nishimura

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:159

    Content type: Research

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  33. Oscillating Positive Expiratory Pressure (OPEP) devices are important adjuncts to airway clearance therapy in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Current devices are typically reusable and require daily, or of...

    Authors: Kevin J. O’Sullivan, Valerie Power, Barry Linnane, Deirdre McGrath, Magdalena Mulligan, Rebecca White, Leonard W. O’Sullivan and Colum P. Dunne

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:158

    Content type: Research

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  34. Factors that may increase the risk for delirium and the firm knowledge around mechanism for delirium in noninvasive ventilation (NIV) patients is lacking. We investigated the incidence, characteristics, and ou...

    Authors: Rui Zhang, Linfu Bai, Xiaoli Han, Shicong Huang, Lintong Zhou and Jun Duan

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:157

    Content type: Research article

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  35. The utility of bronchoscopy for patients with suspected immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI)-related pneumonitis is currently debatable. The purpose of this study was to examine the findings of bronchoalveolar la...

    Authors: Osamu Nishiyama, Shigeki Shimizu, Koji Haratani, Kosuke Isomoto, Junko Tanizaki, Hidetoshi Hayashi, Ryo Yamazaki, Takashi Oomori, Yusaku Nishikawa, Akiko Sano, Kazuhiko Nakagawa and Yuji Tohda

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:155

    Content type: Research

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  36. Lefamulin, a first-in-class pleuromutilin antibiotic approved for intravenous and oral use in adults with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP), was noninferior to moxifloxacin in the Lefamulin Evaluat...

    Authors: Thomas M. File Jr., Elizabeth Alexander, Lisa Goldberg, Anita F. Das, Christian Sandrock, Susanne Paukner and Gregory J. Moran

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:154

    Content type: Research

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  37. Methacholine challenge tests (MCTs) are used to diagnose airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in patients with suspected asthma where previous diagnostic testing has been inconclusive. The test is time consuming a...

    Authors: Michael Peled, David Ovadya, Jennifer Cohn, Lior Seluk, Teet Pullerits, Michael J. Segel and Amir Onn

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:153

    Content type: Research Article

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  38. It is important to assess the prognosis of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD). Recently, it was suggested that diffusing capacity of the lung for...

    Authors: Juwhan Choi, Jae Kyeom Sim, Jee Youn Oh, Young Seok Lee, Gyu Young Hur, Sung Yong Lee, Jae Jeong Shim, Chin Kook Rhee and Kyung Hoon Min

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:152

    Content type: Research

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  39. It is difficult to assess the impact of multiple comorbidities on clinical outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this study, we aimed to investigate exacerbation-associated comorbidities...

    Authors: Youngmee Kim, Ye-Jee Kim, Yu Mi Kang and Won-Kyung Cho

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:151

    Content type: Research

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  40. Acute exacerbation (AE) is a devastating phenomenon and reported to be complicated with systemic autoimmune disease-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD). The aim of this study was to investigate the inci...

    Authors: Hiroyuki Kamiya and Ogee Mer Panlaqui

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:150

    Content type: Research

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  41. Several studies demonstrate that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved in the process of bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Tauroursodeoxycholi...

    Authors: Bin Tong, Lin Fu, Biao Hu, Zhi-Cheng Zhang, Zhu-Xia Tan, Se-Ruo Li, Yuan-Hua Chen, Cheng Zhang, Hua Wang, De-Xiang Xu and Hui Zhao

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:149

    Content type: Research article

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  42. There is limited data available on the use of CPET as a predictive tool for disease outcomes in the setting of IPF. We investigated the feasibility of undertaking CPET and the relationship between CPET and qua...

    Authors: R. Davis, C. Dixon, A. B. Millar, N. A. Maskell and S. L. Barratt

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:147

    Content type: Research

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  43. Transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) in the diagnosis of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is not a common approach, although TBLB is often performed in diffuse lung diseases. We aimed to examine the diagnostic valu...

    Authors: Wenshuai Xu, Han Cui, Hongrui Liu, Ruie Feng, Xinlun Tian, Yanli Yang and Kai-Feng Xu

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:146

    Content type: Research article

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