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  1. Air pollution has many negative health effects on the general population, especially children, subjects with underlying chronic disease and the elderly. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of t...

    Authors: Susanna Esposito, Carlotta Galeone, Mara Lelii, Benedetta Longhi, Beatrice Ascolese, Laura Senatore, Elisabetta Prada, Valentina Montinaro, Stefano Malerba, Maria Francesca Patria and Nicola Principi
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:130
  2. Bacteremia by Streptococcus pneumoniae has been traditionally associated with poor outcomes in patients with pneumonia; however, data on its impact on outcomes are limited and are sometimes contradictory.

    Authors: Alberto Capelastegui, Rafael Zalacain, Amaia Bilbao, Mikel Egurrola, Luis Alberto Ruiz Iturriaga, Jose M Quintana, Ainhoa Gomez, Cristobal Esteban and Pedro P España
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:128
  3. Long term oxygen therapy (LTOT) has a strong evidence base in COPD patients with respiratory failure, but prescribing practices are recognized to need reform to ensure appropriate use and minimize costs. In th...

    Authors: Alice M Turner, Sourav Sen, Cathryn Steeley, Yasmin Khan, Pamela Sweeney, Yvonne Richards and Rahul Mukherjee
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:127
  4. Nitric oxide can be measured at multiple flow rates to determine proximal (maximum airway nitric oxide flux; JawNO) and distal inflammation (alveolar nitric oxide concentration; CANO). The main aim was to study t...

    Authors: Olaia Sardón, Paula Corcuera, Ane Aldasoro, Javier Korta, Javier Mintegui, José I Emparanza and Eduardo G Pérez-Yarza
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:126
  5. The effectiveness of clinic-based pulmonary rehabilitation in advanced COPD is well established, but few data exist for less severe patients treated in alternative settings. The purpose of this study was to in...

    Authors: Shefalee Amin, Marlon Abrazado, Molly Quinn, Thomas W Storer, Chi-Hong Tseng and Christopher B Cooper
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:125
  6. Patients with COPD are at risk of non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection (NTM). This study examined the histology of lung tissue from COPD patients following lung volume reduction with particular focus on evi...

    Authors: Anjali Char, Nick S Hopkinson, David M Hansell, Andrew G Nicholson, Emily C Shaw, Samuel J Clark, Philip Sedgwick, Robert Wilson, Simon Jordan and Michael R Loebinger
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:124
  7. The role of mixed pneumonia (virus + bacteria) in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has been described in recent years. However, it is not known whether the systemic inflammatory profile is different compared...

    Authors: Salvador Bello, Elisa Mincholé, Sergio Fandos, Ana B Lasierra, María A Ruiz, Ana L Simon, Carolina Panadero, Carlos Lapresta, Rosario Menendez and Antoni Torres
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:123
  8. Eotaxin proteins are a potential therapeutic target in treating the peribronchial eosinophilia associated with allergic airway diseases. Since inflammation is often associated with an increased generation of r...

    Authors: In-Hee Cho, Ju-Hyun Gong, Min-Kyung Kang, Eun-Jung Lee, Jung Han Yoon Park, Sang-Jae Park and Young-Hee Kang
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:122
  9. Systemic inflammation plays an important role in the initiation, promotion, and progression of lung carcinogenesis. In patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), fibrinogen levels correlate with neoplas...

    Authors: Maria Tereza Aguiar Pessoa Morano, Rafael Mesquita, Guilherme Pinheiro Ferreira Da Silva, Amanda Souza Araújo, Juliana Maria De Sousa Pinto, Antero Gomes Neto, Cyntia Maria Sampaio Viana, Manoel Odorico De Moraes Filho and Eanes Delgado Barros Pereira
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:121
  10. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive parenchymal lung disease of unknown aetiology and poor prognosis, characterized by altered tissue repair and fibrosis. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a c...

    Authors: Susanna Estany, Vanesa Vicens-Zygmunt, Roger Llatjós, Ana Montes, Rosa Penín, Ignacio Escobar, Antoni Xaubet, Salud Santos, Frederic Manresa, Jordi Dorca and Maria Molina-Molina
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:120
  11. Bronchodilator medications are central to the symptomatic management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Metered-dose inhalers (MDIs) are the most commonly used devices to deliver treatment to pat...

    Authors: Stephen Rennard, Charles Fogarty, Colin Reisner, Carlos Fernandez, Tracy Fischer, Michael Golden, Earl St Rose, Patrick Darken, Gregory Tardie and Chadwick Orevillo
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:118
  12. Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) is a serious global public health problem. Understanding the correlates of SHS exposure could guide the development of evidence based SHS exposure reduction interventions. Th...

    Authors: Abu S Abdullah, Pete Driezen, Genevieve Sansone, Nigar Nargis, Ghulam AKM Hussain, Anne CK Quah and Geoffrey T Fong
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:117
  13. In healthy lungs, deposited micrometer-sized particles are efficiently phagocytosed by macrophages present on airway surfaces; however, uptake of nanoparticles (NP) by macrophages appears less effective and is...

    Authors: Marianne Geiser, Christoph Wigge, Melanie L Conrad, Sylvie Eigeldinger-Berthou, Lisa Künzi, Holger Garn, Harald Renz and Marcus A Mall
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:116
  14. Glutamine (GLN) has been reported to improve clinical and experimental sepsis outcomes. However, the mechanisms underlying the actions of GLN remain unclear, and may depend upon the route of GLN administration...

    Authors: Yin-Ching Chuang, Huey-Mei Shaw, Chi-Chung Chen, He-Jia Pan, Wei-Chih Lai and Hui-Ling Huang
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:115
  15. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Epidemiological and animal models studies generate hypotheses for innovative strategies in OSA manage...

    Authors: Jose M Marin, Jorge Artal, Teresa Martin, Santiago J Carrizo, Marta Andres, Inmaculada Martin-Burriel, Rosa Bolea, Arianne Sanz, Luis Varona, Javier Godino, Begoña Gallego, Jose A Garcia-Erce, Isabel Villar, Victoria Gil, Marta Forner, Jose P Cubero…
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:114
  16. Inhaled corticosteroids are a mainstay of therapy for persistent asthma, but suboptimal adherence with twice-daily use is widespread. Fluticasone furoate (FF) is a new inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) suitable for...

    Authors: Ashley Woodcock, Jan Lötvall, William W Busse, Eric D Bateman, Sally Stone, Anna Ellsworth and Loretta Jacques
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:113
  17. Eosinophilic airway inflammation is observed in 10-30% of COPD subjects. Whether increased eosinophils or impairment in their clearance by macrophages is associated with the severity and frequency of exacerbat...

    Authors: Osama Eltboli, Mona Bafadhel, Fay Hollins, Adam Wright, Beverley Hargadon, Neeta Kulkarni and Christopher Brightling
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:112
  18. The impact of air pollution on the respiratory system has been estimated on the basis of respiratory symptoms and lung function. However; few studies have compared lung inflammation in healthy and asthmatics c...

    Authors: Benigno Linares Segovia, Gabriela Cortés Sandoval, Norma Amador Licona, Juan Manuel Guízar Mendoza, Estela Núñez Lemus, Diana Olivia Rocha Amador, Xóchitl Sofía Ramírez Gómez and Rebeca Monroy Torres
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:111
  19. Improvements in asthma diagnosis and management require deeper understanding of the heterogeneity of the complex airway inflammation. We hypothesise that differences in the two major inflammatory phenotypes of...

    Authors: Maria Bergquist, Sofia Jonasson, Josephine Hjoberg, Göran Hedenstierna and Jörg Hanrieder
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:110
  20. This paper describes the background, aim, and design of a prospective birth-cohort study in Korea called the COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases (COCOA). COCOA objectives are to investi...

    Authors: Hyeon-Jong Yang, So-Yeon Lee, Dong In Suh, Youn Ho Shin, Byoung-Ju Kim, Ju-Hee Seo, Hyoung Yoon Chang, Kyung Won Kim, Kangmo Ahn, Yee-Jin Shin, Kyung-Sook Lee, Cheol Min Lee, Se-Young Oh, Ho Kim, Jong-Han Leem, Hwan-Cheol Kim…
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:109
  21. Many asthmatic women complain of symptom exacerbations in particular periods, i.e. during pregnancy and menstrual cycles (perimenstrual asthma: PMA)". The goal of this study was to study the effect of the lute...

    Authors: Maria Matteis, Francesca Polverino, Giuseppe Spaziano, Fiorentina Roviezzo, Carlo Santoriello, Nikol Sullo, Maria Rosaria Bucci, Francesco Rossi, Mario Polverino, Caroline A Owen and Bruno D’Agostino
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:108
  22. We aimed to determine adherence to inhaled antibiotics, other respiratory medicines and airway clearance and to determine the association between adherence to these treatments and health outcomes (pulmonary ex...

    Authors: Amanda R McCullough, Michael M Tunney, Alexandra L Quittner, J Stuart Elborn, Judy M Bradley and Carmel M Hughes
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:107
  23. There is still limited information on systemic inflammation in alpha-1-antitrypsin-deficient (AATD) COPD patients and what effect alpha-1-antitrypsin augmentation therapy and/or exercise might have on circulat...

    Authors: I Mark Olfert, Moh H Malek, Tomas ML Eagan, Harrieth Wagner and Peter D Wagner
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:106
  24. Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a major cause of morbidity, hospitalization, and mortality worldwide. Management of CAP for many patients requires rapid initiation of empirical antibiotic treatment, base...

    Authors: Ilija Kuzman, Alexandr Bezlepko, Irena Kondova Topuzovska, László Rókusz, Liudmyla Iudina, Hans-Peter Marschall and Thomas Petri
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:105
  25. Clinical evaluation to differentiate the characteristic features of pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema is often difficult in patients with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE), but diagnosis of pulmo...

    Authors: Minoru Inomata, Soichiro Ikushima, Nobuyasu Awano, Keisuke Kondoh, Kohta Satake, Masahiro Masuo, Yuji Kusunoki, Atsuko Moriya, Hiroyuki Kamiya, Tsunehiro Ando, Noriyo Yanagawa, Toshio Kumasaka, Takashi Ogura, Fumikazu Sakai, Arata Azuma, Akihiko Gemma…
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:104
  26. Patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at increased risk of infection by P. aeruginosa. The specific role of bronchiectasis in both infection and chronic colonization by this microo...

    Authors: Miguel Gallego, Xavier Pomares, Mateu Espasa, Eva Castañer, Mar Solé, David Suárez, Eduard Monsó and Concepción Montón
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:103
  27. Co-morbidities are common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We assessed the contribution of common co-morbidities on health related quality of life (HRQoL) among COPD patients.

    Authors: Jukka Koskela, Maritta Kilpeläinen, Henna Kupiainen, Witold Mazur, Harri Sintonen, Marike Boezen, Ari Lindqvist, Dirkje Postma and Tarja Laitinen
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:102
  28. Respiratory diseases are one of the causes of childhood morbidity and mortality as well as hospitalization globally. The patterns of different respiratory illnesses in several parts of the world have been repo...

    Authors: Tagbo Oguonu, Chikaodinaka Adaeze Ayuk, Benedict Onyeka Edelu and Ikenna Kingsley Ndu
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:101
  29. The aim was to measure flagellin concentrations in the expectorations of CF patients and to examine whether there are correlations with the level of respiratory insufficiency and inflammation.

    Authors: Viviane Balloy, Guiti Thévenot, Thierry Bienvenu, Philippe Morand, Harriet Corvol, Annick Clement, Reuben Ramphal, Dominique Hubert and Michel Chignard
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:100
  30. COPD patients have decreased physical fitness, and have an increased risk of vascular disease. In the general population, fitness is positively associated with resting cerebral blood flow velocity, however, li...

    Authors: Sara E Hartmann, Richard Leigh and Marc J Poulin
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:99
  31. During most COPD exacerbations, patients continue to live in the community but there is little information on changes in activity during exacerbations due to the difficulties of obtaining recent, prospective b...

    Authors: Ayedh D Alahmari, Anant RC Patel, Beverly S Kowlessar, Alex J Mackay, Richa Singh, Jadwiga A Wedzicha and Gavin C Donaldson
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:98
  32. Exercise tolerance can be assessed by the cycle endurance test (CET) and six-minute walk test (6MWT) in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). We sought to investigate the characteristics ...

    Authors: Vasileios Andrianopoulos, Scott S Wagers, Miriam TJ Groenen, Lowie E Vanfleteren, Frits ME Franssen, Frank WJM Smeenk, Ioannis Vogiatzis, Emiel F M Wouters and Martijn A Spruit
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:97
  33. Obese patients (OB) with COPD may better tolerate exercise as compared to normal weight (NW) COPD patients, even if the reason for this is not yet fully understood. We investigated the interactions between obe...

    Authors: Marina Aiello, Elisabetta Teopompi, Panagiota Tzani, Sara Ramponi, Maria Rosaria Gioia, Emilio Marangio and Alfredo Chetta
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:96
  34. Chronic systemic inflammatory syndrome has been implicated in the pathobiology of extrapulmonary manifestations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We aimed to investigate which cell types within ...

    Authors: Carmen Calero, Elena Arellano, Jose Luis Lopez-Villalobos, Verónica Sánchez-López, Nicolás Moreno-Mata and José Luis López-Campos
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:95
  35. Occludin, a tight junction protein, plays an important role in maintaining the integrity of the lung epithelial barrier; however, its role in ventilation-induced lung injury has not been explored. Here, we mea...

    Authors: Mengjie Liu, Changping Gu and Yuelan Wang
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:94
  36. Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is a rare but devastating and progressive disorder characterized by cerebellar dysfunction, lymphoreticular malignancies and recurrent sinopulmonary infections. In A-T, disease of t...

    Authors: Olaf Eickmeier, Su Youn Kim, Eva Herrmann, Constanze Döring, Ruth Duecker, Sandra Voss, Sibylle Wehner, Christoph Hölscher, Julia Pietzner, Stefan Zielen and Ralf Schubert
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:93
  37. Risk factors of anxiety and depression symptoms in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been widely researched, but most of them cannot be addressed clinically. The aim of this study...

    Authors: Qiao Zhang, Jiangrong Liao, Xiuqing Liao, Xiuling Wu, Min Wan, Changzheng Wang and Qianli Ma
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:92
  38. The pathological appearance of idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (IPPFE) with hematoxylin-eosin staining is similar to that of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) in patients with idiopathic pulmonary...

    Authors: Noriyuki Enomoto, Hideki Kusagaya, Yoshiyuki Oyama, Masato Kono, Yusuke Kaida, Shigeki Kuroishi, Dai Hashimoto, Tomoyuki Fujisawa, Koshi Yokomura, Naoki Inui, Yutaro Nakamura and Takafumi Suda
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:91
  39. Remodelling in COPD has at least two dimensions: small airway wall thickening and destruction of alveolar walls. Recent studies indicate that there is some similarity between alveolar and small airway wall mat...

    Authors: Irene MJ Eurlings, Mieke A Dentener, Jack PM Cleutjens, Carine J Peutz, Gernot GU Rohde, Emiel FM Wouters and Niki L Reynaert
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:90
  40. Huntington’s disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor, cognitive and psychiatric disturbances. Chest muscle rigidity, respiratory muscle weakness, difficulty in clearing ...

    Authors: Alvaro Reyes, Travis Cruickshank, Mel Ziman and Kazunori Nosaka
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:89
  41. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is the most common severe chronic disease in primary care. It is typically diagnosed at a late stage, and it is also difficult to predict its trajectory and hence t...

    Authors: Jens Søndergaard and Anders Halling
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:88
  42. Whole-lung lavage (WLL) is classically the first-line treatment for symptomatic pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). However, some patients require multiple WLLs because of refractory nature of their PAP. In ...

    Authors: Hong yan Yu, Xue feng Sun, Yan xun Wang, Zuo jun Xu and Hui Huang
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:87
  43. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis or fibrotic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia are irreversible progressive pulmonary diseases that often have fatal outcomes. Although ...

    Authors: Koichiro Kamio, Arata Azuma, Ken Ohta, Yukihiko Sugiyama, Toshihiro Nukiwa, Shoji Kudoh and Tohru Mizushima
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:86
  44. We have shown that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the cytotoxic mediator, granzyme B by peripheral blood steroid resistan...

    Authors: Greg Hodge, Mark Holmes, Hubertus Jersmann, Paul N Reynolds and Sandra Hodge
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:85
  45. The pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS), a highly prevalent disease, is not completely understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the contributions of Th17 cells a...

    Authors: Lin Ying, Hequan Li, Zhijie Pan, Shanni Ma, Pei Zhang, Qing Wang, Guohua Lu and Jianying Zhou
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:84
  46. The discovery of the fusion gene echinodermmicro tubule associated proteinlike 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase, EML4-ALK, in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer has led to the remarkable development of anapl...

    Authors: Qiushi Wang, Yong He, Xin Yang, Yubo Wang and Hualiang Xiao
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:83
  47. In cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, the upper airways display the same ion channel defect as evident in the lungs, resulting in chronic inflammation and infection. Recognition of the sinonasal area as a site of ...

    Authors: Julia Hentschel, Manuela Jäger, Natalie Beiersdorf, Nele Fischer, Franziska Doht, Ruth K Michl, Thomas Lehmann, Udo R Markert, Klas Böer, Peter M Keller, Mathias W Pletz and Jochen G Mainz
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:82
  48. Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) is characterized by chronic eosinophilic infiltration of the lung. It is dramatically responsive to corticosteroid treatment, but symptoms and radiopacities recur frequentl...

    Authors: Ji Young Park, Taehoon Lee, Hongyeul Lee, Yeon Joo Lee, Jong Sun Park, Young-Jae Cho, Ho Il Yoon, Jae Ho Lee and Choon-Taek Lee
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:81
  49. Bronchial asthma influences some chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension, but the impact of asthma on vital diseases such as chronic kidney disease is not yet verif...

    Authors: Hui-Ling Huang, Shinn-Ying Ho, Chien-Hsun Li, Fang-Ying Chu, Li-Ping Ciou, Hua-Chin Lee, Wen-Liang Chen and Nian-Sheng Tzeng
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2014 14:80

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