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  1. Nintedanib reduces the rate of decline in forced vital capacity in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), other chronic fibrosing interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) with a progressive phenotype and ...

    Authors: Ulrike Schmid, Benjamin Weber, Celine Sarr and Matthias Freiwald

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:244

    Content type: Research

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  2. Fibrotic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is a chronic interstitial lung disease caused by allergic responses to repeated exposures to a causative antigen. Therapeutic evidence of the use of corticosteroids t...

    Authors: Masaru Ejima, Tsukasa Okamoto, Takafumi Suzuki, Tatsuhiko Anzai, Kunihiko Takahashi and Yasunari Miyazaki

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:243

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is one of the most common cancers with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) serve as tumor promoters or suppressors in the development of various hu...

    Authors: Ye Qian, Yan Zhang, Haoming Ji, Yucheng Shen, Liangfeng Zheng, Shouliang Cheng and Xiaomin Lu

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:242

    Content type: Research article

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  4. The novel coronavirus SARS-Cov-2 can infect the respiratory tract causing a spectrum of disease varying from mild to fatal pneumonia, and known as COVID-19. Ongoing clinical research is assessing the potential...

    Authors: Francesco Lombardi, Angelo Calabrese, Bruno Iovene, Chiara Pierandrei, Marialessia Lerede, Francesco Varone, Luca Richeldi and Giacomo Sgalla

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:241

    Content type: Research

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  5. Partnership between anesthesia providers and proceduralists is essential to ensure patient safety and optimize outcomes. A renewed importance of this axiom has emerged in advanced bronchoscopy and intervention...

    Authors: Michael A. Pritchett, Kelvin Lau, Scott Skibo, Karen A. Phillips and Krish Bhadra

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:240

    Content type: Review

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  6. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis is a chronic, progressive interstitial lung disease for which there is no cure. However, lung function decline, hospitalizations, and mortality may be reduced with the use of the ...

    Authors: Bryan T. Kelly, Viengneesee Thao, Timothy M. Dempsey, Lindsey R. Sangaralingham, Stephanie R. Payne, Taylor T. Teague, Teng Moua, Nilay D. Shah and Andrew H. Limper

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:239

    Content type: Research

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  7. Pain is a common but underappreciated symptom experienced by people with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). The relationships between pain and physical activity (PA) and exercise capacity are poorly...

    Authors: Rebecca A. Raphaely, Maria A. Mongiardo, Rebekah L. Goldstein, Stephanie A. Robinson, Emily S. Wan and Marilyn L. Moy

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:238

    Content type: Research

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  8. The mortality risk of chronic interstitial lung disease (ILD) is currently assessed using the ILD-GAP score. The present study evaluates whether the addition of cardiopulmonary ultrasound parameters to the ILD...

    Authors: Wei-wei Zhu, Hong Li, Yi-dan Li, Lanlan Sun, Lingyun Kong, Xiaoguang Ye, Qizhe Cai and Xiu-zhang Lv

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:237

    Content type: Research

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  9. Acute lung injury (ALI) is a pulmonary disorder that leads to acute respiration failure and thereby results in a high mortality worldwide. Increasing studies have indicated that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is ...

    Authors: Qingsong Sun, Man Luo, Zhiwei Gao, Xiang Han, Weiqin Wu and Hongmei Zhao

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:236

    Content type: Research

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  10. Secondary polycythemia is associated with cigarette smoking and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the prevalence of polycythemia in COPD and the contributing risk factors for polycythemia ...

    Authors: Jingzhou Zhang, Dawn L. DeMeo, Edwin K. Silverman, Barry J. Make, R. Chad Wade, J. Michael Wells, Michael H. Cho and Brian D. Hobbs

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:235

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the most prevalent cancers. As reported, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) induce various biological behaviors in cancers. LncRNA PCGEM1 prostate-specific transcript (...

    Authors: Huanshun Wen, Hongxiang Feng, Qianli Ma and Chaoyang Liang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:234

    Content type: Research

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  12. To explore the long-term trajectories considering pneumonia volumes and lymphocyte counts with individual data in COVID-19.

    Authors: Nannan Shi, Chao Huang, Qi Zhang, Chunzi Shi, Fengjun Liu, Fengxiang Song, Qinguo Hou, Jie Shen, Fei Shan, Xiaoming Su, Cheng Liu, Zhiyong Zhang, Lei Shi and Yuxin Shi

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:233

    Content type: Research

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  13. Few reference equations exist for healthy adults of various races for pulmonary diffusing capacity for nitric oxide (DLNO). The purpose of this study was to collect pilot data to demonstrate that race-specific...

    Authors: Gerald Stanley Zavorsky, Ahmad Saleh Almamary, Mobarak Khalid Alqahtani, Shi Huh Samuel Shan and Douglas Shawn Gardenhire

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:232

    Content type: Research

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  14. The association between the dual use of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) and conventional cigarettes (c-cigarette) and spirometry-defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has not been studied tho...

    Authors: Taeyun Kim and Jihun Kang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:231

    Content type: Research

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  15. The life-threatening haemorrhagic complications of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) are extremely rare, and only described in isolated cases. This study was designed to comprehensively investigate...

    Authors: Xu Ma, Bing Jie, Dong Yu, Ling-Ling Li and Sen Jiang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:230

    Content type: Research

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  16. The SARS-CoV2 pandemic increased exponentially the need for both Intensive (ICU) and Intermediate Care Units (RICU). The latter are of particular importance because they can play a dual role in critical and po...

    Authors: Mónica Matute-Villacís, Jorge Moisés, Cristina Embid, Judith Armas, Isabel Fernández, Montserrat Medina, Miquel Ferrer, Oriol Sibila and Joan Ramón Badia

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:228

    Content type: Research

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  17. Medical thoracoscopy (MT) is recommended in patients with undiagnosed exudative pleural effusion and offers a degree of diagnostic sensitivity for pleural malignancy. However, not all patients who undergo MT r...

    Authors: Yan-Xia Yu, Yuan Yang, Yan-Bing Wu, Xiao-Juan Wang, Li-Li Xu, Zhen Wang, Feng Wang, Zhao-Hui Tong and Huan-Zhong Shi

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:226

    Content type: Research

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  18. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-threatening multiorgan genetic disease, particularly affecting the lungs, where recurrent infections are the main cause of reduced life expectancy. In CF, mutations in the gene e...

    Authors: Mária Budai-Szűcs, Szilvia Berkó, Anita Kovács, Pongsiri Jaikumpun, Rita Ambrus, Adrien Halász, Piroska Szabó-Révész, Erzsébet Csányi and Ákos Zsembery

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:225

    Content type: Research

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  19. To evaluate the accuracy and safety of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) guided biopsy in the diagnosis of radiologically determined pleural based lesions.

    Authors: Wenwen Sun, Yiming Zhou, Cong Yang, Zhengwei Dong, ZheMin Zhang, Yin Wang and Lin Fan

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:224

    Content type: Research

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  20. Ciliated muconodular papillary tumor (CMPT) is an incredibly rare pulmonary tumor. Currently, little is known about CMPT, and it has not yet been classified by the World Health Organization. The clinical manif...

    Authors: Lei Zhao, Conner M. Willson, Nathan T. Givens, Ziwen Zhu, Mark R. Wakefield, Yongsheng Wang, Wanchun Yang and Yujiang Fang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:223

    Content type: Case report

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  21. Endobronchial electrocautery is a common and safe therapeutic endoscopic treatment for malignant airway obstruction. Cerebral arterial air embolism (CAAE) is a rare but potentially fatal complication of endobr...

    Authors: Yu-Ping He, Yuan-Ling Liu, Xing-Lin Gao and Li-Hua Wang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:222

    Content type: Case report

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  22. Currently, there are two antifibrotics used to treat idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF): pirfenidone and nintedanib. Antifibrotics slow disease progression by reducing the annual decline of forced vital capac...

    Authors: Yuzo Suzuki, Kazutaka Mori, Yuya Aono, Masato Kono, Hirotsugu Hasegawa, Koshi Yokomura, Hyogo Naoi, Hironao Hozumi, Masato Karayama, Kazuki Furuhashi, Noriyuki Enomoto, Tomoyuki Fujisawa, Yutaro Nakamura, Naoki Inui, Hidenori Nakamura and Takafumi Suda

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:221

    Content type: Research

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  23. Patients with drug resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) with comorbidities and drug toxicities are difficult to treat. Guidelines recommend such patients to be managed in consultation with a multidisciplinary team o...

    Authors: Joseph Baruch Baluku, Richard Katuramu, Joshua Naloka, Enock Kizito, Martin Nabwana and Felix Bongomin

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:220

    Content type: Research

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  24. It is difficult to distinguish between multicentric Castleman’s disease (MCD) and IgG4-related lung disease (IgG4-LD), an IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) in the lung.

    Authors: Yasuhiro Kinugawa, Takeshi Uehara, Mai Iwaya, Shiho Asaka, Shota Kobayashi, Tomoyuki Nakajima, Masamichi Komatsu, Masanori Yasuo, Hiroshi Yamamoto and Hiroyoshi Ota

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:219

    Content type: Research

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  25. Although antifibrotic drugs, including nintedanib and pirfenidone, slow the progression of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), there is little data about the timing of start of antifibrotic treatment in real-...

    Authors: Keishi Sugino, Hirotaka Ono, Natsumi Watanabe, Masahiro Ando, Eiyasu Tsuboi, Sakae Homma and Kazuma Kishi

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:218

    Content type: Research

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  26. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a multifactorial clinical condition, characterized by chronic progressive (or worsening) respiratory symptoms, structural pulmonary abnormalities, and impaired l...

    Authors: Nikolaos Tzanakis, Nikolaos Koulouris, Katerina Dimakou, Konstantinos Gourgoulianis, Epameinondas Kosmas, Georgia Chasapidou, Athanasios Konstantinidis, Christos Kyriakopoulos, Theodoros Kontakiotis, Aggeliki Rapti, Mina Gaga, Konstantinos Kalafatakis and Konstantinos Kostikas

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:216

    Content type: Research

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  27. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disease that causes obstructed airways and abnormal inflammatory responses in the lungs. Early growth response 3 (EGR3) has been revealed to play a vital role in ...

    Authors: Panfeng Chen, Ping Jiang, Jianing Chen, Yang Yang and Xiumei Guo

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:215

    Content type: Research

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  28. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complicated multi-factor, multi-gene disease. Here, we aimed to assess the association of genetic polymorphisms in LINC01414/ LINC00824 and interactions with COPD...

    Authors: Xiaoman Zhou, Yunjun Zhang, Yutian Zhang, Quanni Li, Mei Lin, Yixiu Yang, Yufei Xie and Yipeng Ding

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:213

    Content type: Research

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  29. Pseudomonas fluorescens (P. fluorescens) has been detected in respiratory samples from patients. However, no previous reports have been published about these P. fluorescens cultures from lung tissues.

    Authors: Xiao Liu, Lei Xiang, Yunhong Yin, Hao Li, Dedong Ma and Yiqing Qu

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:212

    Content type: Case report

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  30. As a typical “united airway” disease, asthma-chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) overlap has recently drawn more attention. Bronchiectasis is a heterogeneous disease related to a variety of diseases. Whether bronchie...

    Authors: Haiyan Sheng, Xiujuan Yao, Xiangdong Wang, Yuhong Wang, Xiaofang Liu and Luo Zhang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:211

    Content type: Research

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  31. In adults with primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP), contralateral recurrence occurs in about 25–28% when there are asymptomatic blebs. How to treat contralateral recurrence of PSP in pediatric populations r...

    Authors: Chieh-Ni Kao, Shah-Hwa Chou, Ming-Ju Tsai, Po-Chih Chang and Yu-Wei Liu

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:210

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Clinical practice guidelines and re-imbursement schedules vary in the recommended timing of FDG-PET/CT in the diagnostic evaluation of suspected or confirmed lung cancer. The aim was to estimate the probabilit...

    Authors: Anne Johnson, Richard Norman, Francesco Piccolo and David Manners

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:209

    Content type: Research

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  33. Molecular targeted therapy for non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is restricted due to resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). This study evaluated the effec...

    Authors: Ge-Ping Qu, Min Shi, Dan Wang, Jiong-He Wu, Peng Wang, Mei-Liang Gong and Zhi-Jian Zhang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:208

    Content type: Research

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  34. The leprosy-tuberculosis (TB) co-infection is rarely reported in recent times. However, this dual comorbidity is associated with high mortality and major morbidity. Unrecognised leprosy-TB co-infection may pre...

    Authors: Josiah T. Masuka, Zamambo Mkhize, Somasundram Pillay and Anisa Mosam

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:207

    Content type: Case report

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  35. Tuberculosis remains a serious public health concern globally. The enormous social, economic, and health impacts of the diseases are attributed to the lack of updated data on the prevalence, geospatial distrib...

    Authors: Ketema Tafess, Teresa Kisi Beyen, Sisay Girma, Asnakech Girma and Gilman Siu

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:206

    Content type: Research

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  36. To assess mortality rate (MR) and standardized mortality rate (SMR) of rheumatoid arthritis-related interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD) patients and to evaluate the role of radiographic patterns in mortality.

    Authors: Maria A. Nieto, Maria J. Rodriguez-Nieto, Olga Sanchez-Pernaute, Fredeswinda Romero-Bueno, Leticia Leon, Cristina Vadillo, Dalifer D. Freites-Nuñez, Juan A. Jover, Jose L. Álvarez-Sala and Lydia Abasolo

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:205

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Patients with connective tissue disease, such as dermatomyositis (DM), and positive anti-TIF1γ self-antibodies are commonly diagnosed with malignant tumors as a comorbidity. The relationship between anti-TIF1γ...

    Authors: Jiao-jiao Xie, Bin Li, Rui Xu, Xian-zhi Du and Jin-zhi He

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:204

    Content type: Case report

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  38. Invasive and non-invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) have been combined as sequential MV in the treatment of respiratory failure. However, the effectiveness remains unclear. Here, we performed a randomized co...

    Authors: Nai-Min Kang, Nan Zhang, Bao-Jian Luo, En-Dong Wu, Jian-Quan Shi, Liang Li and Li Jiang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:203

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Mechanical power (MP) of artificial ventilation, the energy transferred to the respiratory system, is a chief determinant of adequate oxygenation and decarboxylation. Calculated MP, the product of applied airw...

    Authors: Alessandro Ghiani, Joanna Paderewska, Swenja Walcher and Claus Neurohr

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:202

    Content type: Research

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  40. Sepsis is a complicated disease with systemic inflammation or organ dysfunction, and it is the leading cause of acute lung injury (ALI). Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have played important roles in the pathog...

    Authors: Bing Wang, Qi Sun, Wen Ye, Lianghai Li and Ping Jin

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:200

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Glypican 3 (GPC3) is a heparin sulphate proteoglycan whose expression is associated with several malignancies. However, its expression in non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is limited and ambiguous. This st...

    Authors: Jing Ning, Shenyi Jiang, Xiaoxi Li, Yang Wang, Xuhong Deng, Zhiqiang Zhang, Lijie He, Daqing Wang and Youhong Jiang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:199

    Content type: Research

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:381

  42. Patients undergoing bronchoscopy in spontaneous breathing are prone to hypoxaemia and hypercapnia. Sedation, airway obstruction, and lung diseases impair respiration and gas exchange. The restitution of normal...

    Authors: Daniel Strohleit, Thomas Galetin, Nils Kosse, Alberto Lopez-Pastorini and Erich Stoelben

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:198

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a disease characterized by arteriovenous malformations in the skin and mucous membranes. We enrolled a large pedigree comprising 32 living members, and screened f...

    Authors: Yu Xu, Yong-Biao Zhang, Li-Jun Liang, Jia-Li Tian, Jin-Ming Lin, Pan-Pan Wang, Rong-Hui Li, Ming-Liang Gu and Zhan-Cheng Gao

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:197

    Content type: Research article

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  44. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Taotao Liu, Qinyu Zhao and Bin Du

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:194

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:160

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