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  1. As lung transplantation (LTX) is a valuable treatment procedure for end-stage pulmonary disease, delayed referral to a transplant center should be avoided. We aimed to conduct a single-center analysis of the s...

    Authors: Takashi Hirama, Miki Akiba, Tatsuaki Watanabe, Yui Watanabe, Hirotsugu Notsuda, Hisashi Oishi, Hiromichi Niikawa and Yoshinori Okada

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:390

    Content type: Research

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  2. There is little evidence about the factors that predict persistence/adherence in treatment-naïve patients with COPD in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to evaluate persistence and adherence levels ...

    Authors: López-Pintor Elsa, Grau Justo and Lumbreras Blanca

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:388

    Content type: Research article

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  3. There is a lack of studies comparing PCT, CRP and WBC levels in the differential diagnosis of acute bacterial, viral, and mycoplasmal respiratory tract infections. It is necessary to explore the correlation be...

    Authors: Yang Li, Lanfang Min and Xin Zhang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:386

    Content type: Research

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  4. Allergic asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory disease with a number of cytokines participating in its pathogenesis and progress. Interleukin (IL)-22, which is derived from lymphocytes, acts on epithelial ce...

    Authors: Jingru Wang, Shengnan Gao, Jingyuan Zhang, Chunxiao Li, Hongwen Li and Jiangtao Lin

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:385

    Content type: Research

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  5. Remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a central mechanism in the progression of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and remodeling of type VI collagen has been suggested to be associated with diseas...

    Authors: Henrik Jessen, Nils Hoyer, Thomas S. Prior, Peder Frederiksen, Sarah R. Rønnow, Morten A. Karsdal, Diana J. Leeming, Elisabeth Bendstrup, Jannie M. B. Sand and Saher B. Shaker

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:382

    Content type: Research

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  6. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    Authors: Jing Ning, Shenyi Jiang, Xiaoxi Li, Yang Wang, Xuhong Deng, Zhiqiang Zhang, Lijie He, Daqing Wang and Youhong Jiang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:381

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:199

  7. Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common cause of atypical community acquired pneumonia (CAP). The diagnostic approach of chlamydial infections remains a challenge. Diagnosis of delayed chlamydial-associated complication...

    Authors: Konstantinos G. Kyriakoulis, Anastasios Kollias, George E. Diakos, Ioannis P. Trontzas, Eleni Fyta, Nikolaos K. Syrigos and Garyphallia Poulakou

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:380

    Content type: Case report

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  8. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in premature infants, characterized by alveolar dysplasia and pulmonary microvascular remodeling. In the present study, we have inve...

    Authors: Yue Zhu, Huimin Ju, Hongyan Lu, Wei Tang, Junying Lu and Qiuxia Wang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:379

    Content type: Research

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  9. Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is one cause of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and can also emerge along with PH. The clinical diagnosis and treatment of OSA in patients with PH are still controversial. The purpos...

    Authors: Lu Yan, Zhihui Zhao, Qing Zhao, Qi Jin, Yi Zhang, Xin Li, Anqi Duan, Qin Luo and Zhihong Liu

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:378

    Content type: Research

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  10. Preventing pulmonary vascular remodeling is a key strategy for pulmonary hypertension (PH). Causes of PH include pulmonary vasoconstriction and inflammation. This study aimed to determine whether cilostazol (C...

    Authors: Toshikazu Ito, Erquan Zhang, Ayaka Omori, Jane Kabwe, Masako Kawai, Junko Maruyama, Amphone Okada, Ayumu Yokochi, Hirofumi Sawada, Yoshihide Mitani and Kazuo Maruyama

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:377

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Cigarettes smoking and IL-17A contribute to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and have synergistical effect on bronchial epithelial cell proliferation. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C-EBPβ) cou...

    Authors: Shuyuan Chu, Libing Ma, Yashan Wu, Xiaoli Zhao, Bo Xiao and Qilu Pan

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:376

    Content type: Research

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  12. Tuberculosis, as a communicable disease, is an ongoing global epidemic that accounts for high burden of global mortality and morbidity. Globally, with an estimated 10 million new cases and around 1.4 million d...

    Authors: Deepak Dhamnetiya, Priyanka Patel, Ravi Prakash Jha, Neha Shri, Mayank Singh and Krittika Bhattacharyya

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:375

    Content type: Research

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  13. Respiratory tract infections (RTI) are the second most frequent diagnosis after Malaria amongst Outpatients in Uganda. Majority are Non pneumonia cough and flu which are self-limiting and often do not require ...

    Authors: Timothy Eria Muwanguzi, Tadele Mekuriya Yadesa and Amon Ganafa Agaba

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:374

    Content type: Research

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  14. Nivolumab is used for the treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). However, immune-related adverse events (irAEs) occur in patients treated with nivolumab. Several studies have reported the correlati...

    Authors: Hiroto Yoneda, Hiroshi Nokihara, Atsushi Mitsuhashi, Ryohiko Ozaki, Yohei Yabuki, Hirokazu Ogino, Kenji Otsuka and Yasuhiko Nishioka

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:373

    Content type: Research

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  15. Today, over 300 million people reside with asthma worldwide and India alone is home for 6% of children and 2% of adults suffering from this chronic disease. A common notion of disparity persists in terms of he...

    Authors: Rashmi Rashmi, Pradeep Kumar, Shobhit Srivastava and T. Muhammad

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:372

    Content type: Research

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  16. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a kind of chronic lung diseases with the characteristics of airway remodeling and airflow obstruction. Magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate (MgIG) is an anti-inflammator...

    Authors: Ye Yang, Lei Huang, Chongchong Tian and Bingjun Qian

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:371

    Content type: Research

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  17. Many patients with polymyositis (PM) or dermatomyositis (DM) have circulating myositis-specific antibodies (MSAs). Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a common manifestation of PM/DM, and it can even precede th...

    Authors: Abhinav K. Misra, Nathan L. Wong, Terrance T. Healey, Edward V. Lally and Barry S. Shea

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:370

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Research into the effects of asthma treatments on the extra-pulmonary symptoms of severe asthma is limited by the absence of a suitable questionnaire. The aim was to create a questionnaire suitable for interve...

    Authors: Giulio de Felice, Michael E. Hyland, Joseph W. Lanario, Yuri Antonacci, Rupert C. Jones and Matthew Masoli

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:369

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Lung cancer associated with cystic airspaces, especially solitary multicystic lesion lung cancer, is a rare disease (a rare imaging performance of non-small cell lung cancer). It is difficult to diagnose owing...

    Authors: Xi Tang, Gang Liu, Xianglan Tan, Chengjun Liu, Jin Xiang and Yu Jiang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:368

    Content type: Case report

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  20. Hypoxemia frequently occurs during bronchoscopy. High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy may be a feasible alternative to prevent the deterioration of gas exchange during bronchoscopy. With the convenien...

    Authors: Rui Wang, Hai-Chao Li, Xu-Yan Li, Xiao Tang, Hui-Wen Chu, Xue Yuan, Zhao-Hui Tong and Bing Sun

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:367

    Content type: Research

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  21. Sarcoidosis-associated pulmonary hypertension (SAPH) is a prevalent and serious complication of sarcoidosis. No SAPH-specific self-report instruments for assessing SAPH symptoms and their impact on patients ar...

    Authors: Brooke M. Currie, Evan W. Davies, Amélie Beaudet, Larissa Stassek, Leah Kleinman and Robert P. Baughman

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:365

    Content type: Research

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  22. The inflammatory phenotypes of asthma predict the treatment response and prognosis. The phenotype distributions differ depending on the geographical region. This study aimed to assess the distribution of diffe...

    Authors: Bingqing Shi, Wei Li, Hongna Dong, Mengting Xu, Yuqiu Hao and Peng Gao

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:364

    Content type: Research

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  23. Adenovirus pneumonia is prone to severe clinical and imaging manifestations in children. Bronchoscopic alveolar lavage (BAL) is an important adjunctive therapy for patients with severe imaging findings. The st...

    Authors: Xue-hua Xu, Hui-feng Fan, Ting-Ting Shi, Di-Yuan Yang, Li Huang, Wen-hui Jiang and Gen Lu

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:363

    Content type: Research

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  24. LncRNA GAS5 and miR-155 are reported to play opposite roles in lung inflammatory responses. Lung inflammation participates in childhood pneumonia, indicating the involvement of GAS5 and miR-155 in pneumonia. T...

    Authors: Xiaoping Wang, Ping Guo, Jiahui Tian, Jie Li, Na Yan, Xin Zhao and Yue Ma

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:362

    Content type: Research

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  25. Interstitial lung disease is a debilitating condition associated with significant dyspnoea, fatigue, and poor exercise tolerance. Pulmonary rehabilitation is an effective and key intervention in people with in...

    Authors: Leona M. Dowman, Anthony K. May, Catherine J. Hill, Janet Bondarenko, Lissa Spencer, Norman R. Morris, Jennifer A. Alison, James Walsh, Nicole S. L. Goh, Tamera Corte, Ian Glaspole, Daniel C. Chambers, Christine F. McDonald and Anne E. Holland

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:361

    Content type: Study protocol

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  26. Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is the barrier for global TB elimination efforts with a lower treatment success rate. Loss to follow-up (LTFU) in DR-TB is a serious problem, causes mortality and morbidity ...

    Authors: Soedarsono Soedarsono, Ni Made Mertaniasih, Tutik Kusmiati, Ariani Permatasari, Ni Njoman Juliasih, Cholichul Hadi and Ilham Nur Alfian

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:360

    Content type: Research

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  27. Small plateau (SP) on the flow-volume curve was found in parts of patients with suspected asthma or upper airway abnormalities, but it lacks clear scientific proof. Therefore, we aimed to characterize its clin...

    Authors: Yimin Wang, Wenya Chen, Yicong Li, Changzheng Zhang, Lijuan Liang, Ruibo Huang, Jianling Liang, Yi Gao and Jinping Zheng

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:359

    Content type: Research

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  28. Whole Lung Lavage (WLL) has been an important part in the management of Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis (PAP) since it improves radiologic and clinical parameters. Bilateral WLL is usually performed in two sess...

    Authors: Javier Diaz-Mendoza, Eduardo Celis Valdiviezo, Niral M. Patel and Michael J. Simoff

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:358

    Content type: Research

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  29. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a noninvasive, radiation-free, bedside tool to monitor ventilation distribution in real time.

    Authors: Milena S. Nascimento, Glasiele C. Alcala, Ana I. A. Guzman, Leticia C. Corrêa, Diana M. Baggio, Felipe S. Rossi, Linus P. Fascina, Marcelo B. P. Amato and Cristiane do Prado

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:357

    Content type: Research

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  30. Identifying trends of hospital admissions for respiratory diseases is crucial for public health and research to guide future clinical improvements for better outcomes. This study aims to define the trends of r...

    Authors: Abdallah Y. Naser, Munthir M. Mansour, Abeer F. R. Alanazi, Omar Sabha, Hassan Alwafi, Zahraa Jalal, Vibhu Paudyal, Mohammad S. Dairi, Emad M. Salawati, Jaber S. Alqahtan, Shalan Alaamri and Moaath K. Mustafa Ali

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:356

    Content type: Research

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  31. Supplemental oxygen delivered with standard oxygen therapy (SOT) improves exercise capacity in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Although high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy (HFNC) improves...

    Authors: Diana Badenes-Bonet, Pilar Cejudo, Anna Rodó-Pin, Clara Martín-Ontiyuelo, Roberto Chalela, Jose Antonio Rodríguez-Portal, Rosa Vázquez-Sánchez, Joaquim Gea, Xavier Duran, Oswaldo Antonio Caguana, Diego Agustín Rodriguez-Chiaradia and Eva Balcells

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:355

    Content type: Research

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  32. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been used as an immunomodulatory therapy to counteract severe systemic inflammation in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). But its use in COVID-19 related acute respirato...

    Authors: Husain S. Ali, Moustafa S. Elshafei, Mohamed O. Saad, Hassan A. Mitwally, Mohammad Al Wraidat, Asra Aroos, Nissar Shaikh, Dore C. Ananthegowda, Mohamed A. Abdelaty, Saibu George, Abdulqadir J. Nashwan, Ahmed S. Mohamed and Mohamad Y. Khatib

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:354

    Content type: Research

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  33. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is the gold standard for the evaluation of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease; however, lung ultrasound (LUS) is being increasingly used for the assessment of lung in ...

    Authors: Maryam Hassanzad, Arda Kiani, Atefeh Abedini, Hoseinali Ghaffaripour, Habib Emami, Niloufar Alizadeh, Ghazal Zoghi, Saeed Hashemi and Ali Akbar Velayati

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:353

    Content type: Research

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  34. Dental technicians are at high risk of pneumoconiosis, usually driven by inhalation of mixed dusts, including metals. An etiological diagnosis is not easy to be performed, particularly in advanced stages.

    Authors: Mara Maria Tiraboschi, Emma Sala, Matteo Ferroni, Andrea Tironi, Andrea Borghesi, Maria Enrica Gilberti, Paolo Ceruti, Emanuele Sansone and Giuseppe De Palma

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:352

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  35. Depression is one of the most common and untreated comorbidities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and is associated with poor health outcomes (e.g. increased hospitalization/exacerbation rates)...

    Authors: Marisa R. Pinson, Nicolaas E. P. Deutz, Rajesh Harrykissoon, Anthony J. Zachria and Mariëlle P. K. J. Engelen

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:351

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS)/drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is an important adverse reaction caused by a few drugs. Reactivation of human herpesvirus 6 ...

    Authors: Yutaka Muto, Naoyuki Kuse, Minoru Inomata, Nobuyasu Awano, Mari Tone, Kohei Takada, Kazushi Fujimoto, Yuan Bae, Toshio Kumasaka and Takehiro Izumo

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:350

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  37. High-throughput next-generation sequencing (HT-NGS) has the potential to detect a large variety of pathogens; however, the application of HT-NGS in lung transplant (LTx) recipients remains limited. We aimed to...

    Authors: Qiao-yan Lian, Ao Chen, Jian-heng Zhang, Wei-jie Guan, Xin Xu, Bing Wei, Dan-xia Huang, Jian-xing He and Chun-rong Ju

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:348

    Content type: Research

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  38. We have reported that heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) is increased in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and associated with collagen deposition, but the mechanisms rem...

    Authors: Yanyu Li, Guomei Su, Yu Zhong, Zhilin Xiong, Tong Huang, Jingyun Quan, Jiewen Huang, Xiaoxia Wen, Chaole Luo, Weilin Zheng, Jinfeng Chen, Junfen Cheng, Weimin Yao and Tianwen Lai

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:347

    Content type: Research

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  39. Myeloperoxidase antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA) is often positive in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD), which is also often present in patients with microscopic polyangiitis (MPA). A...

    Authors: Hideaki Yamakawa, Shintaro Sato, Tomohiko Nakamura, Tomotaka Nishizawa, Rie Kawabe, Tomohiro Oba, Masanobu Horikoshi, Keiichi Akasaka, Masako Amano, Kazuyoshi Kuwano, Hiroki Sasaki and Hidekazu Matsushima

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:346

    Content type: Research

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  40. It remains unclear whether methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia is associated with higher mortality compared with non-MRSA pneumonia. This study’s objective was to compare outcomes includi...

    Authors: Yukiyo Sakamoto, Yasuhiro Yamauchi, Taisuke Jo, Nobuaki Michihata, Wakae Hasegawa, Hideyuki Takeshima, Hiroki Matsui, Kiyohide Fushimi, Hideo Yasunaga and Takahide Nagase

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:345

    Content type: Research

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  41. Spirometric reference values are well known in several ethnic groups but the normative spirometric values of blacks living in Africa have been less studied. The purpose of this study is to establish normative ...

    Authors: Eric Walter Pefura-Yone, Adamou Dodo Balkissou, Virginie Poka-Mayap, Amadou Djenabou, Massongo Massongo, Nguetsa Arsene Ofimboudem, Catherine Fanny Mayoh-Nguemfo, Antoinette Ghislaine Tsala, Halidou Hadjara and Francine Amougou

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:344

    Content type: Research

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  42. Asthma is a heterogeneous disease that can be divided into four inflammatory phenotypes: eosinophilic asthma (EA), neutrophilic asthma (NA), mixed granulocytic asthma (MGA), and paucigranulocytic asthma (PGA)....

    Authors: Min Li, Wenye Zhu, Chu Wang, Yuanyuan Zheng, Shibo Sun, Yan Fang and Zhuang Luo

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:343

    Content type: Research

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  43. Little is known concerning the stability of the lower airway microbiome. We have compared the microbiota identified by repeated bronchoscopy in healthy subjects and patients with ostructive lung diseaseases (O...

    Authors: Rune Nielsen, Yaxin Xue, Inge Jonassen, Ingvild Haaland, Øyvind Kommedal, Harald G. Wiker, Christine Drengenes, Per S. Bakke and Tomas M. L. Eagan

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:342

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  44. Authors: Pietro Gianella, Elia Rigamonti, Marco Marando, Adriana Tamburello, Lorenzo Grazioli Gauthier, Gianluca Argentieri, Carla Puligheddu, Alberto Pagnamenta, Marco Pons and Tanja Fusi-Schmidhauser

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:340

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:136

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