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  1. Zosteriform skin metastasis (ZSM) is rare, and its etiology is not well understood. ZSM is possibly derived from the retrograde movement of cancer cells through the lymphatic vessels during disease development...

    Authors: Yohei Maki, Yoshifumi Kimizuka, Koji Murakami, Kimiya Sato, Hisashi Sasaki, Takayuki Yamamoto, Chie Watanabe, Tomoya Sano, Jun Miyata, Yuji Fujikura and Akihiko Kawana

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:41

    Content type: Case report

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  2. Lung ultrasound score is a potential method for determining pulmonary edema in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) has become the preferred modality to manag...

    Authors: Fei Wang, Chunxia Wang, Jingyi Shi, Yijun Shan, Huijie Miao, Ting Sun, Yiping Zhou and Yucai Zhang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:40

    Content type: Research article

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  3. To evaluate the feasibility and safety of microcoil in simultaneous localization for multiple pulmonary nodules before video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS).

    Authors: Yanyan Xu, Lingchuan Ma, Hongliang Sun, Zhenguo Huang, Zhenrong Zhang, Fei Xiao, Qianli Ma, Jie Lin and Sheng Xie

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:39

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Clinical management of COVID-19 requires close monitoring of lung function. While computed tomography (CT) offers ideal way to identify the phenotypes, it cannot monitor the patient response to therapeutic int...

    Authors: Zhanqi Zhao, Jin-Shou Zhang, Ying-Tzu Chen, Hou-Tai Chang, Yeong-Long Hsu, Inéz Frerichs and Andy Adler

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:38

    Content type: Case report

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  5. COVID-19 is a systemic viral infection which mainly targets the human respiratory system with many secondary clinical manifestations especially affecting the hematopoietic system and haemostasis. Few studies h...

    Authors: Albert Yick Hou Lim, Jun Leng Goh, Mae Chui Wei Chua, Bee Hoon Heng, John Arputham Abisheganaden and Pradeep Paul George

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:37

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Persistent allergic airway diseases cause a great burden worldwide. Their pathogenesis is not clear enough. There is evidence that one of the recently described cytokine interleukin (IL) 22 may be involved in ...

    Authors: Laura Tamasauskiene, Vilte Marija Gintauskiene, Daina Bastyte and Brigita Sitkauskiene

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:36

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is a disease that is associated with severe uncontrolled eosinophilic asthma. Eosinophils play an important pathogenic role in the development of both disea...

    Authors: Carlos Martínez-Rivera, Ignasi Garcia-Olivé, Blanca Urrutia-Royo, Maria Basagaña-Torrento, Antoni Rosell and Jorge Abad

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:35

    Content type: Case report

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  8. It is necessary to analyze the CT pulmonary vascular parameters and disease severity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients to provide evidence support for the management of COPD.

    Authors: Tao Yang, Chihua Chen and Zhongyuanlong Chen

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:34

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Bilirubin is a potent antioxidant and higher serum bilirubin levels have been associated with improved COPD outcomes. We performed a systematic review to evaluate the association between serum bilirubin levels...

    Authors: David M. MacDonald, Ken M. Kunisaki, Timothy J. Wilt and Arianne K. Baldomero

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:33

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Early suspicion followed by assessing lung function with spirometry could decrease the underdiagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in primary care. We aimed to develop a nomogram to predict ...

    Authors: Sang Chul Lee, Chansik An, Jongha Yoo, Sungho Park, Donggyo Shin and Chang Hoon Han

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:32

    Content type: Research Article

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  11. The most common and severe infection of Aspergillus fumigatus is invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), which is usually seen in immunocompromised patients. Neutropenia is the primary risk factor implicated in I...

    Authors: Chunlai Feng, Ming Zhang, Sujuan Zhang, Jun Zhang, Chong Li and Jun Zhou

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:31

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Regular exercise is important in the management of COPD. Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) facilitates a more physically active lifestyle through exercise participation, ideally without compromising non-exercise p...

    Authors: Sarah Ward, Mark Orme, Jakub Zatloukal and Sally Singh

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:30

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Whipple’s disease is a chronic infectious disease caused by the Gram-positive bacterium Tropheryma whipplei (TW), which not only affects the gastrointestinal tract and causes malabsorption of nutrients, but sever...

    Authors: Wei Li, Qun Zhang, Yanling Xu, Xiyue Zhang, Qian Huang and Zhenzhong Su

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:29

    Content type: Case report

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  14. Since there was no previous report, we analyzed the relationship between French Risk Stratification parameters in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and mean pulmonary arterial pressures (mPAP) using Japan ...

    Authors: Yuichi Tamura, Hiraku Kumamaru, Kohtaro Abe, Toru Satoh, Hiroaki Miyata, Aiko Ogawa, Nobuhiro Tanabe, Masaru Hatano, Atsushi Yao, Ichizo Tsujino, Keiichi Fukuda, Hiroshi Kimura, Masataka Kuwana, Hiromi Matsubara and Koichiro Tatsumi

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:28

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Extranodal natural killer/T cell lymphoma (ENKL) is a rare subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and lung involvement is extremely rare. The patients with pulmonary ENKL always presented unspecific symptoms of the ...

    Authors: Wei Wang, Zhi-Tao Li, Nan-Nan Cui, Guo-Bin Wang and Shui-Qiao Fu

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:27

    Content type: Case report

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  16. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, combination treatment with long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) and long-acting β2 agonist (LABA) increases forced expiratory volume in one second ...

    Authors: Masato Muraki, Yuki Kunita, Ken Shirahase, Ryo Yamazaki, Soichiro Hanada, Hirochiyo Sawaguchi and Yuji Tohda

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:26

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Intermittent Prone Positioning (IPP) for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) decreases mortality. We present a program for IPP using expedient materials for settings of significant limitations in both o...

    Authors: Alfredo J. Astua, Eli K. Michaels and Andrew J. Michaels

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:25

    Content type: Technical advance

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  18. Pulmonary radiological findings of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been well documented and range from scattered ground-glass infiltrates in milder cases to confluent ground-glass change, de...

    Authors: Zaid Zoumot, Maria-Fernanda Bonilla, Ali S. Wahla, Irfan Shafiq, Mateen Uzbeck, Rania M. El-Lababidi, Fadi Hamed, Mohamed Abuzakouk and Mahmoud ElKaissi

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:24

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Salbutamol-induced lactic acidosis is a rare presentation that could manifest in specific clinical context as acute asthmatic attack treatment. An increase of glycolysis pathway leading to pyruvate escalation ...

    Authors: Vorakamol Phoophiboon, Parima Singhagowinta, Sangdao Boonkaya and Thitiwat Sriprasart

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:23

    Content type: Case report

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  20. The interaction between the pulmonary function and cardiovascular mechanics is a crucial issue, particularly when treating patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Synchrogram index is a new...

    Authors: Yu-Chen Huang, Ting-Yu Lin, Hau-Tieng Wu, Po-Jui Chang, Chun-Yu Lo, Tsai-Yu Wang, Chih-Hsi Scott Kuo, Shu-Min Lin, Fu-Tsai Chung, Horng-Chyuan Lin, Meng-Heng Hsieh and Yu-Lun Lo

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:22

    Content type: Research article

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  21. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Ane Uranga, Amaia Artaraz, Amaia Bilbao, Jose María Quintana, Ignacio Arriaga, Maider Intxausti, Jose Luis Lobo, Julia Amaranta García, Jesus Camino and Pedro Pablo España

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:21

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:261

  22. Spontaneous pneumothorax is a common problem globally. Bullas and blebs have been implicated in this problem, but the etiology of their formation is unknown. We aim to show the relation between a novel clinica...

    Authors: Akira Iyoda, Yoko Azuma, Takashi Sakai, Satoshi Koezuka, Hajime Otsuka and Atsushi Sano

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:20

    Content type: Research article

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  23. While tuberculosis is considered a risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, a restrictive pattern of pulmonary impairment may actually be more common among tuberculosis survivors. We aimed to det...

    Authors: Sara C. Auld, Hardy Kornfeld, Pholo Maenetje, Mandla Mlotshwa, William Chase, Mboyo di-Tamba Vangu, Drew A. Torigian, Robert S. Wallis, Gavin Churchyard and Gregory P. Bisson

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:19

    Content type: Original Research

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  24. A once-daily (o.d.) fixed-dose combination of indacaterol acetate (IND), glycopyrronium bromide (GLY), and mometasone furoate (MF) delivered via the Breezhaler® device (IND/GLY/MF) is being developed for treatmen...

    Authors: Satoru Inoue, Soniya Vaidya, Hanns-Christian Tillmann, Yohei Sakita, Surendra Machineni, Olivier Heudi and Kenichi Furihata

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:18

    Content type: Research article

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  25. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy on patients with aspiration pneumonia accompanied by respiratory failure in the post-stroke ...

    Authors: Dong Xing, Yu-Hong Chen, Lan -Tao Wang, Bin Yu, Zhi -Bin Ran and Li Chen

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:17

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Pulmonary infiltrates of variable etiology are one of the main reasons for hypoxemic respiratory failure leading to invasive mechanical ventilation. If pulmonary infiltrates remain unexplained or progress desp...

    Authors: Alessandro Ghiani and Claus Neurohr

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:15

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Endoscopic removal is the most common method for removal of tracheal stents. Few studies have reported the technique of fluoroscopy-guided stent removal for tracheal fistula and tracheal stenosis. We aimed to ...

    Authors: Yonghua Bi, Jindong Li, Liangliang Bai, Xinwei Han and Jianzhuang Ren

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:14

    Content type: Research article

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  28. There is only limited clinical data on the benefit of intense immunosuppression in patients with severe interstitial pneumonia associated with autoimmune features or new-onset connective tissue disease.

    Authors: Philipp Eller, Holger Flick, Gernot Schilcher, Florentine Moazedi-Fürst, Kathrin Eller, Emina Talakic, Josef Hermann, Yannick Allanore and Horst Olschewski

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:13

    Content type: Case report

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  29. Anti-synthetase syndrome (ASS) is an uncommon immune-mediated entity characterized by myositis, interstitial lung disease (ILD), non-erosive arthritis, and less common features such as fever, Raynaud’s phenome...

    Authors: Nasam Alfraji, Usman Mazahir, Moiuz Chaudhri and Jeffrey Miskoff

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:11

    Content type: Case report

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  30. Bronchopleural fistula is a rare but life-threatening event with limited therapeutic options. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of the modified silicone stent in patients with post-surgical bronc...

    Authors: Junli Zeng, Xuemei Wu, Zhide Chen, Meihua Zhang and Mingyao Ke

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:10

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Chemo-radiotherapy and systemic therapies have proven satisfactory outcomes as standard treatments for various thoracic malignancies; however, adverse pulmonary effects, like pneumonitis, can be life-threateni...

    Authors: Marisol Arroyo-Hernández, Federico Maldonado, Francisco Lozano-Ruiz, Wendy Muñoz-Montaño, Mónica Nuñez-Baez and Oscar Arrieta

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:9

    Content type: Review

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  32. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common lung disease during middle age which one of its complications is depression. Depression is considered one of the major causes of severe disability world...

    Authors: Fahimeh Dinparast, Akbar Sharifi, Sara Moradi, Maedeh Alipour and Beitullah Alipour

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:8

    Content type: Research article

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  33. For patients with acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as comorbidity have poor outcomes. However, data on the impact of previously diagnosed and new- diagnosed T2DM in such a p...

    Authors: Li Lin, Jianxin Shi, Jian Kang and Qiuyue Wang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:7

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Immune checkpoint inhibitors have potential applications in treating various cancers but are associated with immune-related adverse events, such as inflammation, in a wide range of organs; however, allergic in...

    Authors: Masanori Harada, Hyogo Naoi, Kazuyo Yasuda, Yutaro Ito, Namio Kagoo, Tsutomu Kubota, Koshiro Ichijo, Eisuke Mochizuki, Masahiro Uehara, Shun Matsuura, Masaru Tsukui and Naoki Koshimizu

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:6

    Content type: Case report

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  35. Some patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) develop pneumothorax. However, the characteristics of pneumothorax in patients with IPF have not been elucidated. The purpose of this study was to clarify...

    Authors: Ryo Yamazaki, Osamu Nishiyama, Kyuya Gose, Sho Saeki, Hiroyuki Sano, Takashi Iwanaga and Yuji Tohda

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:5

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Screening for lung cancer has used chest radiography (CR), low dose computed tomography (LDCT) and sputum cytology (SC). Estimates of the lead time (LT), i.e., the time interval from detection of lung cancer b...

    Authors: Jochanan Benbassat

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:4

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Recent basic studies demonstrate that the lung is a primary organ of platelet biogenesis. However, whether the pathophysiological state of the lung affect the platelets is little known. We aim to investigate t...

    Authors: Limeng Wu, Ninghong Guo, Zhenyan Xu, Wei Wang, Qinmei Xiong, Jinzhu Hu, Rong Wan and Kui Hong

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:3

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Congenital bronchial atresia is a rare pulmonary abnormality characterized by the disrupted communication between the central and the peripheral bronchus and is typically asymptomatic. Although it can be sympt...

    Authors: Gaku Kuwabara, Risa Sone, Waki Imoto, Kazushi Yamairi, Wataru Shibata, Kazuhiro Oshima, Koichi Yamada, Kazuhiro Yamada, Tetsuya Watanabe, Kazuhisa Asai, Hiroaki Komatsu, Nobuhiro Izumi, Noritoshi Nishiyama, Tomoya Kawaguchi and Hiroshi Kakeya

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:2

    Content type: Case report

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  39. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic progressive disease that causes scarring of the lungs. The disease is associated with the usual interstitial pneumonia pattern, which was not yet fully recapitu...

    Authors: Gali Epstein Shochet, Lilach Israeli-Shani, Isabelle Kains, Ori Wand and David Shitrit

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:1

    Content type: Research Article

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  40. During the ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), lockdown periods have changed the way that people and communities live, work and interact.

    Authors: Daniela Savi, Giada Valente, Alessandra Iacovelli, Federica Olmati, Mario Bezzi and Paolo Palange

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:325

    Content type: Case report

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  41. It had been shown that High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is an effective initial support strategy for patients with acute respiratory failure. However, the efficacy of HFNC for patients with COVID-19 has not been...

    Authors: Ming Hu, Qiang Zhou, Ruiqiang Zheng, Xuyan Li, Jianmin Ling, Yumei Chen, Jing Jia and Cuihong Xie

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:324

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), a diverse group of diffuse lung diseases, mainly affect the lung parenchyma. The low-throughput ‘omics’ technologies (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics) and relative drug...

    Authors: Yupeng Li, Gangao Wu, Yu Shang, Yue Qi, Xue Wang, Shangwei Ning and Hong Chen

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:323

    Content type: Database

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  43. This article has been retracted. Please see the Retraction Notice for more detail: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12890-020-01365-7.

    Authors: Chuncheng Zhang, Jing Yue, Mingyue Li, Wei Jiang, Yu Pan, Zhimin Song, Cailian Shi, Weixuan Fan and Zhenxiang Pan

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:322

    Content type: Retraction Note

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    The original article was published in BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2019 19:207

  44. Primary cardiac neoplasms are extremely rare, with an autopsy incidence of 0.0001–0.003%. Primary cardiac sarcoma is usually derived from the right atrium and it manifests as chest pain, arrhythmia, hemoptysis...

    Authors: Masaoki Saito, Takeshi Saraya, Miku Oda, Toshinori Minamishima, Ken Kongoji, Aya Isomura, Masachika Fujiwara, Kyoko Soejima and Haruyuki Ishii

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:321

    Content type: Case report

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  45. The purpose of our study was to assess the frequency of occult foreign body aspiration (FBA) and to evaluate the diagnostic difficulties and therapeutic methods for these patients.

    Authors: Bo Liu, Fengxia Ding, Yong An, Yonggang Li, Zhengxia Pan, Gang Wang, Jiangtao Dai, Hongbo Li and Chun Wu

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:320

    Content type: Research article

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  46. The COVID-19 pandemic is having profound psychological impacts on populations globally, with increasing levels of stress, anxiety, and depression being reported, especially in people with pre-existing medical ...

    Authors: Keir E. J. Philip, Bradley Lonergan, Andrew Cumella, Joe Farrington-Douglas, Michael Laffan and Nicholas S. Hopkinson

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:319

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Exacerbations are critical events in chronic pulmonary obstructive disease (COPD). The frequency of COPD exacerbations is associated with the prognosis, including mortality, but no useful biomarker has been es...

    Authors: Hiroki Tashiro, Yuki Kurihara, Koichiro Takahashi, Hironori Sadamatsu, Tetsuro Haraguchi, Ryo Tajiri, Ayako Takamori, Shinya Kimura and Naoko Sueoka-Aragane

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:318

    Content type: Research article

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  48. The COVID-19 pandemic reached Europe in early 2020. Convalescent plasma is used without a consistent evidence of efficacy. Our hypothesis is that passive immunization with plasma collected from patients having...

    Authors: Benoît Misset, Eric Hoste, Anne-Françoise Donneau, David Grimaldi, Geert Meyfroidt, Michel Moutschen, Veerle Compernolle, André Gothot, Daniel Desmecht, Mutien Garigliany, Tome Najdovski and Pierre-François Laterre

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2020 20:317

    Content type: Study protocol

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