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  1. Myeloperoxidase antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA) is often positive in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD), which is also often present in patients with microscopic polyangiitis (MPA). A...

    Authors: Hideaki Yamakawa, Shintaro Sato, Tomohiko Nakamura, Tomotaka Nishizawa, Rie Kawabe, Tomohiro Oba, Masanobu Horikoshi, Keiichi Akasaka, Masako Amano, Kazuyoshi Kuwano, Hiroki Sasaki and Hidekazu Matsushima

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:346

    Content type: Research

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  2. Spirometric reference values are well known in several ethnic groups but the normative spirometric values of blacks living in Africa have been less studied. The purpose of this study is to establish normative ...

    Authors: Eric Walter Pefura-Yone, Adamou Dodo Balkissou, Virginie Poka-Mayap, Amadou Djenabou, Massongo Massongo, Nguetsa Arsene Ofimboudem, Catherine Fanny Mayoh-Nguemfo, Antoinette Ghislaine Tsala, Halidou Hadjara and Francine Amougou

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:344

    Content type: Research

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  3. Asthma is a heterogeneous disease that can be divided into four inflammatory phenotypes: eosinophilic asthma (EA), neutrophilic asthma (NA), mixed granulocytic asthma (MGA), and paucigranulocytic asthma (PGA)....

    Authors: Min Li, Wenye Zhu, Chu Wang, Yuanyuan Zheng, Shibo Sun, Yan Fang and Zhuang Luo

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:343

    Content type: Research

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  4. Little is known concerning the stability of the lower airway microbiome. We have compared the microbiota identified by repeated bronchoscopy in healthy subjects and patients with ostructive lung diseaseases (O...

    Authors: Rune Nielsen, Yaxin Xue, Inge Jonassen, Ingvild Haaland, Øyvind Kommedal, Harald G. Wiker, Christine Drengenes, Per S. Bakke and Tomas M. L. Eagan

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:342

    Content type: Research

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  5. Authors: Pietro Gianella, Elia Rigamonti, Marco Marando, Adriana Tamburello, Lorenzo Grazioli Gauthier, Gianluca Argentieri, Carla Puligheddu, Alberto Pagnamenta, Marco Pons and Tanja Fusi-Schmidhauser

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:340

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:136

  6. Acute respiratory distress syndrome, which is caused by acute lung injury, is a destructive respiratory disorder caused by a systemic inflammatory response. Persistent inflammation results in irreversible alve...

    Authors: Toshiyuki Aokage, Mizuki Seya, Takahiro Hirayama, Tsuyoshi Nojima, Masumi Iketani, Michiko Ishikawa, Yasuhiro Terasaki, Akihiko Taniguchi, Nobuaki Miyahara, Atsunori Nakao, Ikuroh Ohsawa and Hiromichi Naito

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:339

    Content type: Research

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  7. Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) accompanies hypercytokinemia, similar to secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH). We aimed to find if HScore could predict disease severity in COVID-19. H...

    Authors: Mohammadreza Bordbar, Anahita Sanaei Dashti, Ali Amanati, Eslam Shorafa, Yasaman Mansoori, Seyed Javad Dehghani and Hossein Molavi Vardanjani

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:338

    Content type: Research

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  8. Organizing pneumonia (OP) can be diagnosed pathologically, and cryptogenic OP (COP) and secondary OP (SOP) have been classified by cause and particular underlying context. Because it is clinically difficult to...

    Authors: Keum-Ju Choi, Eun-Hyung Yoo, Kyung Chan Kim and Eun Jin Kim

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:336

    Content type: Research

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  9. In recent years, the incidence of pulmonary aspergilloma has increased. The harm of aspergilloma is life-threatening massive hemoptysis, and the conventional treatment is surgical treatment. However, whether t...

    Authors: Xianqiu Chen, Yiming Zhou, Lijuan Zhang, Jinfu Xu and Shuo Liang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:335

    Content type: Study protocol

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  10. Despite incarcerated population being at an increased risk of tuberculosis (TB) and serving as a potential source of TB transmission for the general population, prison TB remains understudied. Given its advers...

    Authors: Asmah Amirkhani, Maheen Humayun, Wen Ye, Yoseph Worku and Zhenhua Yang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:334

    Content type: Research

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  11. Recent studies report very low adherence of practitioners to ATS/IDSA recommendations for the treatment of nontuberculous mycobacteria pulmonary disease (NTM-PD), as well as a great variability of practices. T...

    Authors: Pascale Bemer, Olivia Peuchant, Hélène Guet-Revillet, Julien Bador, Charlotte Balavoine, Damien Basille, Guillaume Beltramo, François-Xavier Blanc, Elodie Blanchard, Sarah Boulanger, Anne Bourgoin, David Boutoille, Emmanuelle Cambau, Frédérique Canis, Didier Caparros, Anne Carricajo…

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:333

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Both inadequate and excessive administration of oxygen to acutely unwell patients results in risk of harm. Guidelines recommend titration of oxygen to achieve a target oxygen saturation (SpO2) range. Information ...

    Authors: James C. P. Harper, Ruth Semprini, Nethmi A. Kearns, Lee Hatter, Grace E. Bird, Irene Braithwaite, Allie Eathorne, Mark Weatherall and Richard Beasley

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:332

    Content type: Research

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  13. Defined as the energy applied to the respiratory system by ventilator, mechanical power (MP) of ventilation reflects the risk of ventilation-induced lung injury. This study aims to explore the relationship bet...

    Authors: Yi Chi, Qing Zhang, Siyi Yuan, Zhanqi Zhao, Yun Long and Huaiwu He

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:331

    Content type: Research

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  14. Optimal functionality of synthetic lung surfactant for treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants largely depends on the quality and quantity of the surfactant protein B (SP-B) peptide mimic...

    Authors: Frans J. Walther, Shantanu Sharma, Larry M. Gordon and Alan J. Waring

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:330

    Content type: Research

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  15. Patients hospitalized with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations are unable to complete the pulmonary function test reliably due to their poor health conditions. Creating an easy-to-use in...

    Authors: Jing Chen, Zhao Yang, Qun Yuan, Li-quan Guo and Da-xi Xiong

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:329

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Noninvasive estimation of the actual systolic pulmonary artery pressure measured via right-sided heart catheterization (sPAPRHC) is vital for the management of pulmonary hypertension, including chronic thromboemb...

    Authors: Akane Matsumura, Ayako Shigeta, Hajime Kasai, Hajime Yokota, Jiro Terada, Keiko Yamamoto, Toshihiko Sugiura, Takuma Matsumura, Seiichiro Sakao, Nobuhiro Tanabe and Koichiro Tatsumi

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:328

    Content type: Research

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  17. Detection of small peripheral lung nodules is constantly increasing with the development of low dose computed tomography lung cancer screening programs. A tissue diagnosis is often required to confirm malignit...

    Authors: Roberto Piro, Matteo Fontana, Eleonora Casalini, Sofia Taddei, Marco Bertolini, Mauro Iori and Nicola Facciolongo

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:327

    Content type: Case report

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  18. Handheld oscillating positive expiratory pressure (OPEP) devices have been a mainstay of treatment for patients with hypersecretory conditions such as cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary dis...

    Authors: Kevin J. O’Sullivan, Valerie Power, Barry Linnane, Deirdre McGrath, Hilda Fogarty, Martina Ryan, Rebecca White, Conor Noonan, Eithne Mulloy, Leonard W. O’Sullivan and Colum P. Dunne

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:326

    Content type: Research

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  19. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the commonest type of lung cancer, which is one of most deadly cancers that possess high morbidity and mortality all over the world. The function of circular RNA NIMA rela...

    Authors: Fei Cao, Xiaoxia Wu, Yongfeng Shan, Binbin Zhang, Haonan Wang, Hui Liu and Hao Yu

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:325

    Content type: Research

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  20. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and pulmonary function testing (PFT) are noninvasive methods to evaluate the respiratory and circulatory systems. This research aims to evaluate and monitor chronic thro...

    Authors: Hanqing Zhu, Xingxing Sun, Yuan Cao, Bigyan Pudasaini, Wenlan Yang, Jinming Liu and Jian Guo

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:324

    Content type: Research

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  21. Therapeutic bronchoscopy is one of the effective methods in the treatment and management of malignant central airway stenosis (MCAS). However, restenosis after therapeutic bronchoscopy frequently occurs and se...

    Authors: Saibin Wang, Renzhi Zhou, Siyao Zhu and Dan Yan

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:323

    Content type: Research

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  22. Traditional bronchoscopy provides limited approach to peripheral nodules. Shape-sensing robotic-assisted bronchoscopy (SSRAB, Ion™ Endoluminal System) is a new tool for minimally invasive peripheral nodule bio...

    Authors: Michael J. Simoff, Michael A. Pritchett, Janani S. Reisenauer, David E. Ost, Adnan Majid, Colleen Keyes, Roberto F. Casal, Mihir S. Parikh, Javier Diaz-Mendoza, Sebastian Fernandez-Bussy and Erik E. Folch

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:322

    Content type: Research

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  23. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic respiratory disease that seriously threatens people’s health, with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. At present, the clinical diagnosis methods o...

    Authors: Hui Yu, Jing Zhao, Dongyi Liu, Zhen Chen, Jinglai Sun and Xiaoyun Zhao

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:321

    Content type: Research

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  24. To investigate the risk factors and construct a logistic model and an extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) model to compare the predictive performances for readmission in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructi...

    Authors: Lili Chen and Shiping Chen

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:320

    Content type: Research

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  25. The burden of undiagnosed obstructive lung disease (OLD) (mainly asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is not fully established, and targets for corrective action are yet to be identified. We asses...

    Authors: Marie-Christine Delmas, Laetitia Bénézet, Céline Ribet, Yuriko Iwatsubo, Marie Zins, Rachel Nadif, Nicolas Roche and Bénédicte Leynaert

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:319

    Content type: Research

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  26. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), as an important group of innate immunity, could respond rapidly to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. In this research, we studied the phenotypic changes of circulatory ILCs...

    Authors: Linyue Pan, Xiaoli Chen, Xuanqi Liu, Wenjia Qiu, Yunhuan Liu, Weiping Jiang, Yang Zheng, Yan Mou, Wei Xu, Xiangyang Li, Haiyan Ge and Huili Zhu

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:318

    Content type: Research

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  27. Counselling is considered to be a promising approach to increasing physical activity (PA) in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of the current study was to investigate whether a ...

    Authors: Anne-Kathrin Rausch Osthoff, Swantje Beyer, David Gisi, Spencer Rezek, Ariane Schwank, André Meichtry, Noriane A. Sievi, Thomas Hess and Markus Wirz

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:317

    Content type: Research

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  28. Differences in genetics and microenvironment of LUAD patients with or without TP53 mutation were analyzed to illustrate the role of TP53 mutation within the carcinogenesis of LUAD, which will provide new concepts...

    Authors: Dejun Zeng, Zhengyang Hu, Yanjun Yi, Besskaya Valeria, Guangyao Shan, Zhencong Chen, Cheng Zhan, Miao Lin, Zongwu Lin and Qun Wang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:316

    Content type: Research

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  29. Assessment of Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQL) in patients with chronic respiratory insufficiency requiring Home Mechanical Ventilation (HMV) requires a valid measurement tool. The Severe Respiratory Insu...

    Authors: Marwan F. Alawieh, Rania N. Bzeih, Mohamad F. El-Khatib, Abla M. Sibai, Lilian A. Ghandour and Salah M. Zeineldine

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:315

    Content type: Research

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  30. Diaphragm atrophy and dysfunction is a major problem among critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation. Ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction is thought to play a major role, resulting in a failur...

    Authors: Michal Soták, Karel Roubík, Tomáš Henlín and Tomáš Tyll

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:314

    Content type: Research

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  31. The ventricular septal defect (VSD) occluder has been reported to be a novel method for the closure of bronchopleural fistula (BPF). Our study was to confirm the use of VSD occluder in treating BPF after pneum...

    Authors: Yang Bai, Yishi Li, Jing Chi and Shuliang Guo

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:313

    Content type: Research

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  32. Owing to the unsatisfactory results of antibiotic treatment alone, surgical resection is currently considered as adjunctive therapy in patients with nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM-PD). How...

    Authors: Joong-Yub Kim, Samina Park, In Kyu Park, Chang Hyun Kang, Young Tae Kim, Jaemoon Koh, Jae-Joon Yim and Nakwon Kwak

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:312

    Content type: Research

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  33. Asthma is one of the most prevalent chronic respiratory diseases worldwide. This study aimed to determine the updated prevalence of and risk factors for asthma among individuals aged 45 and older in mainland C...

    Authors: Jingxuan Wan, Qing Zhang, Chunxiao Li and Jiangtao Lin

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:311

    Content type: Research

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  34. Rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) is the most commonly used parameter for predicting weaning outcome. Measurement of RSBI by Wright spirometer (RSBIstandard) is the standard method in routine clinical practice...

    Authors: Nuttapol Rittayamai, Natwipha Ratchaneewong, Pirat Tanomsina and Withoon Kongla

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:310

    Content type: Research

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  35. Clinical efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with uncommon histology (uNSCLC) is unknown.

    Authors: Koichi Miyashita, Masato Karayama, Yusuke Inoue, Hironao Hozumi, Yuzo Suzuki, Kazuki Furuhashi, Tomoyuki Fujisawa, Noriyuki Enomoto, Yutaro Nakamura, Masato Kono, Takashi Matsui, Mitsuru Niwa, Keigo Koda, Mikio Toyoshima, Sayomi Matsushima, Shun Matsuura…

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:309

    Content type: Research

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  36. Systemic manifestations and comorbidities are characteristics of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and are probably due to systemic inflammation. The histone methyltransferase SUV39H1 controls the T...

    Authors: Tzu-Tao Chen, Sheng-Ming Wu, Kuan-Yuan Chen, Chien-Hua Tseng, Shu-Chuan Ho, Hsiao-Chi Chuang, Po-Hao Feng, Wen-Te Liu, Chia-Li Han, Erick Wan-Chun Huang, Yun-Kai Yeh and Kang-Yun Lee

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:276

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Whether procalcitonin (PCT) or C-reactive protein (CRP) combined with certain clinical characteristics can better distinguish viral from bacterial infections remains unclear. The aim of the study was to assess...

    Authors: Shengchen Duan, Xiaoying Gu, Guohui Fan, Fei Zhou, Guangfa Zhu and Bin Cao

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:308

    Content type: Research

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  38. The main clinical consequences of severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are pneumonia and respiratory failure even requiring mechanical ventilation. In this context, the lung p...

    Authors: Pierluigi Donatelli, Fabiana Trenatacosti, Maria Rosaria Pellegrino, Roberto Tonelli, Giulia Bruzzi, Alessandro Andreani, Gaia Francesca Cappiello, Dario Andrisani, Filippo Gozzi, Cristina Mussini, Stefano Busani, Gilda Valentina Cavaliere, Massimo Girardis, Elisabetta Bertellini, Enrico Clini and Alessandro Marchioni

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:307

    Content type: Case report

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  39. With the emergence of bronchiectasis as a common respiratory disease, epidemiological data have accumulated. However, the prevalence and impact of psychological comorbidities were not sufficiently evaluated. T...

    Authors: Ji-Ho Lee, Won-Yeon Lee, Suk Joong Yong, Woo Jin Kim, Sooim Sin, Chang Youl Lee, Youlim Kim, Ji Ye Jung and Sang-Ha Kim

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:306

    Content type: Research

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  40. The clinical characteristics of patients with chronic cough are reported only in single-center survey in China, being significantly different from that in western countries. Here, we performed a multicenter st...

    Authors: Kefang Lai, Lianrong Huang, Haijin Zhao, Feng Wu, Guocui Zhen, Haiyan Deng, Wei Luo, Wen Peng, Mei Jiang, Fang Yi, Jianxin Sun, Pusheng Xu, Yuqi Zhou, Yinji Xu, Xiaoling Yuan, Yiju Zhao…

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:305

    Content type: Research

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  41. Reduced exercise tolerance is an important clinical feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is associated with poor prognosis. The 6-min walk test (6MWT) is widely used to assess exercise c...

    Authors: Mingming Deng, Chaonan Liang, Yan Yin, Jun Shu, Xiaoming Zhou, Qiuyue Wang, Gang Hou and Chen Wang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:304

    Content type: Research

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  42. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a well-known risk factor for tuberculosis (TB). Metformin, which is an essential anti-diabetic drug, has been shown to exhibit anti-TB effects in patients with DM. Its effect on preve...

    Authors: Eunyoung Heo, Eunyoung Kim, Eun Jin Jang and Chang-Hoon Lee

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:303

    Content type: Research

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  43. Pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) and dry powder inhalers (DPIs) are commonly used drug-delivering devices for patients with chronic airway diseases. Appropriate peak inhalation flow rate (PIFR) and in...

    Authors: Jian-lan Hua, Xiao-fen Ye, Chun-ling Du, Ning Xie, Jie-qing Zhang, Man Li and Jing Zhang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:302

    Content type: Research

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  44. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations are heterogenous and profoundly impact the disease trajectory. Bioactive lipid lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) has been implicated in airway inflammation ...

    Authors: Qingling Li, Weng Wong, Andrew Birnberg, Arindam Chakrabarti, Xiaoying Yang, David F. Choy, Julie Olsson, Erik Verschueren, Margaret Neighbors, Wendy Sandoval, Carrie M. Rosenberger, Michele A. Grimbaldeston and Gaik W. Tew

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:301

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Psittacosis is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by the transmission of the bacterium Chlamydia psittaci (C. psittaci) from birds to humans. Infections in humans mainly present as community-acquired pneumonia ...

    Authors: Huan-huan Wu, Lan-fang Feng and Shuang-yan Fang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:300

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  46. Patients with COPD experience acute worsenings, termed ‘exacerbations’. While other terms to describe these events have been proposed there is no consensus on terminology which has led to multiple terms being ...

    Authors: Christine Mwasuku, Joanne King, Richard E. K. Russell and Mona Bafadhel

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:299

    Content type: Research

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  47. Physiotherapy is a cornerstone of cystic fibrosis (CF) management, yet the Australian CF Data Registry (ACFDR) currently does not record physiotherapy-related data. This study aimed to gather opinions from lea...

    Authors: Angela Potter, Bhavita Pancholi, Lahni Smith and Carol Maher

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:298

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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