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  1. Immunoglobulin G4-related lung disease (IgG4-RLD) is a rare entity. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical and histopathological characteristics of patients with pathologically confirmed IgG4-RLD to improve ...

    Authors: Jia Liu, Yuxiang Liu, Ximing Shen, Zhanghai He, Tingfeng Yu, Li Pang, Xiaoyan Jin and Lingyun Wang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:413

    Content type: Research

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  2. Research questions To compare the efficacy of nintedanib and pirfenidone in the treatment of progressive pulmonary fibrosis; and to compare the efficacy of anti-fibrotic therapy (grouping nintedanib and pirfenido...

    Authors: James Patrick Finnerty, Aravind Ponnuswamy, Prosjenjit Dutta, Ammar Abdelaziz and Hafiz Kamil

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:411

    Content type: Research

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  3. Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common cause for hospitalization associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Disorders of calcium metabolism are a frequently encountered medical problem. The effect...

    Authors: Mukunthan Murthi, Hafeez Shaka, Zain El-amir, Sujitha Velagapudi, Abdul Jamil, Farah Wani, Ramtej Atluri, Akshay Kumar and Asim Kichloo

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:410

    Content type: Research

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  4. The nutritional status can potentially affect the efficacy of cancer therapy. The Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI), a simple index for evaluating nutritional status calculated from body weight and serum...

    Authors: Masato Karayama, Yusuke Inoue, Hideki Yasui, Hironao Hozumi, Yuzo Suzuki, Kazuki Furuhashi, Tomoyuki Fujisawa, Noriyuki Enomoto, Yutaro Nakamura, Naoki Inui and Takafumi Suda

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:409

    Content type: Research

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  5. Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is the second most common nosocomial infection in intensive care units (ICUs). The present study aims to determine the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria, their biofilm formati...

    Authors: Farzad Mazloomirad, Sajad Hasanzadeh, Asghar Sharifi, Gordafarin Nikbakht, Narges Roustaei and Seyed Sajjad Khoramrooz

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:408

    Content type: Research

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  6. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a type of pulmonary hypertension caused by persistent thromboembolism of the pulmonary arteries. In clinical practice, CTEPH patients often show obstruc...

    Authors: Asako Yanagisawa, Akira Naito, Takayuki Jujo-Sanada, Nobuhiro Tanabe, Keiichi Ishida, Goro Matsumiya, Rika Suda, Hajime Kasai, Ayumi Sekine, Toshihiko Sugiura, Ayako Shigeta, Seiichiro Sakao, Koichiro Tatsumi and Takuji Suzuki

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:407

    Content type: Research

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  7. Diagnosis of pneumonia is critical in managing patients with febrile neutropenia (FN), however, chest X-ray (CXR) has limited performance in the detection of pneumonia. We aimed to evaluate the performance of ...

    Authors: Eui Jin Hwang, Jong Hyuk Lee, Jae Hyun Kim, Woo Hyeon Lim, Jin Mo Goo and Chang Min Park

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:406

    Content type: Research

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  8. Patients with influenza pneumonia are at high risk of rapid progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Mean platelet volume (MPV), which reflects platelet size, is considered to be a crucial in...

    Authors: Teeraphat Reangvilaikul, Piyaphat Udompongpaiboon and Veerapong Vattanavanit

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:405

    Content type: Research

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  9. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating disease with a high clinical burden. The molecular signatures of IPF were analyzed to distinguish molecular subgroups and identify key driver genes and ther...

    Authors: Sung Kyoung Kim, Seung Min Jung, Kyung-Su Park and Ki-Jo Kim

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:404

    Content type: Research

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  10. To meet the surging demands for intubation and invasive ventilation as more COVID-19 patients begin their recovery, clinicians are challenged to find an ultra-brief and minimally invasive screen for postextuba...

    Authors: Shu-Fen Siao, Wen-Hsuan Tseng, Tyng-Guey Wang, Yu-Chung Wei, Tzu-Yu Hsiao, Shih-Chi Ku and Cheryl Chia-Hui Chen

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:403

    Content type: Research

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  11. Eosinophilic pleural effusion (EPE) is a distinct entity among pleural effusions, but its diagnostic and prognostic significance is still controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and aetiologi...

    Authors: Minfang Li, Yunxiang Zeng, Yaqing Li, Dan Jia, Sheng Chen and Jinlin Wang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:402

    Content type: Research

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  12. Association between sleep nocturnal breathing disorders and acute aortic syndrome (AAS) has been described but mid-term data are scarce.

    Authors: Pascal Delsart, Jerome Soquet, Adeline Pierache, Maxime Dedeken, Stephanie Fry, Anne Mallart, François Pontana, Richard Azzaoui, Francis Juthier, Jonathan Sobocinski and Claire Mounier-Vehier

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:401

    Content type: Research

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  13. Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide due to the lack of early diagnostic markers and specific drugs. Previous studies have shown the association of LUAD growth with aberra...

    Authors: Gongjun Wang, Weiwei Qi, Liwei Shen, Shasha Wang, Ruoxi Xiao, Wenqian Li, Yuqi Zhang, Xiaoqian Bian, Libin Sun and Wensheng Qiu

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:400

    Content type: Research

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  14. Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB), obesity, and malnutrition are growing public health problems in the world. However, little has discussed the impact of different BMI status on the emergence of TB drug resi...

    Authors: Wan-mei Song, Jing Guo, Ting-ting Xu, Shi-jin Li, Jin-yue Liu, Ning-ning Tao, Yao Liu, Qian-yun Zhang, Si-qi Liu, Qi-qi An, Yi-fan Li, Chun-bao Yu, Ji-hua Dong and Huai-chen Li

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:399

    Content type: Research

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  15. Recent asthma guidelines, such as the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA), recommend in adult patients as-needed inhaled corticosteroids (ICS)-formoterol as an alternative to maintenance ICS in mild to moderat...

    Authors: Jefferson Antonio Buendía and Diana Guerrero Patiño

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:397

    Content type: Research

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  16. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by a poor prognosis, with a progressive decline in lung function and considerable variability in the disease’s natural history. Besides lung transplantatio...

    Authors: Gian Marco Manzetti, Karishma Hosein, Matthew J. Cecchini, Keith Kwan, Mohamed Abdelrazek, Maurizio Zompatori, Paola Rogliani and Marco Mura

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:396

    Content type: Study protocol

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  17. Sarcoidosis is granulomatous disease of unknown origin affecting organ function and quality of life. The King’s Sarcoidosis Questionnaire (KSQ) serves as a tool to assess quality of life in sarcoidosis patient...

    Authors: Björn Christian Frye, Laura Potasso, Erik Farin-Glattacker, Surrinder Birring, Joachim Müller-Quernheim and Jonas Christian Schupp

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:395

    Content type: Research

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  18. Home mechanical ventilation (HMV) is a viable and effective strategy for patients with chronic respiratory failure (CRF). The Chilean Ministry of Health started a program for adults in 2008.

    Authors: César Maquilón, Mónica Antolini, Nicolás Valdés, Marianela Andrade, Krishnna Canales, Claudio Rabec, Cristian Olave, Miguel Aguayo, Patricia Rivas, Carmen Andrade, Ángela Venegas, Sandra Zapata, María Elena Torres, Osvaldo Cabrera and Jorge Villalobos

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:394

    Content type: Research

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  19. Some studies previously demonstrated that interleukin-17 (IL-17) involves in pulmonary diseases progression. Nevertheless, the role of IL-17 in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains unknown. This study ai...

    Authors: Chun-Mei Feng, Xin-Ming Wang, Meng-Die Li, Zheng Xu, Dong-Xu Hua, Jia-Yi Cheng, Ling Zheng, Hui Zhao and Lin Fu

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:393

    Content type: Research

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  20. The burden of hospitalizations and mortality for hemoptysis due to bronchiectasis is not well characterized. The primary outcome of our study was to evaluate in-hospital mortality in patients admitted with hem...

    Authors: Rachel K. Lim, Alain Tremblay, Shengjie Lu and Ranjani Somayaji

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:392

    Content type: Research

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  21. Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality, and cesarean section is an established independent risk factor for PE. The diagnostic utility of D-dimer for PE in non-pregnant...

    Authors: Limin Zhang, Yunqiu Chen, Wenjuan Liu, Xinzhuo Wang, Shuang Zhang, Wenyan Zhang, Shuai Zhao, Miaomiao Zhang, Su Zhang and Guangyu Jiao

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:391

    Content type: Research

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  22. As lung transplantation (LTX) is a valuable treatment procedure for end-stage pulmonary disease, delayed referral to a transplant center should be avoided. We aimed to conduct a single-center analysis of the s...

    Authors: Takashi Hirama, Miki Akiba, Tatsuaki Watanabe, Yui Watanabe, Hirotsugu Notsuda, Hisashi Oishi, Hiromichi Niikawa and Yoshinori Okada

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:390

    Content type: Research

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  23. There is little evidence about the factors that predict persistence/adherence in treatment-naïve patients with COPD in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to evaluate persistence and adherence levels ...

    Authors: López-Pintor Elsa, Grau Justo and Lumbreras Blanca

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:388

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Given the increased incidence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) among patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), noninvasive screening methods are urgently needed to screen for OSA risk in these pa...

    Authors: Yang-Bor Lu, Yu-Chieh Weng, Yung-Ning Huang, Hsiung-Ying Huang, Pei-Ting Cheng, Hui-Shan Hsieh and Ming-Shao Tsai

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:387

    Content type: Research

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  25. There is a lack of studies comparing PCT, CRP and WBC levels in the differential diagnosis of acute bacterial, viral, and mycoplasmal respiratory tract infections. It is necessary to explore the correlation be...

    Authors: Yang Li, Lanfang Min and Xin Zhang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:386

    Content type: Research

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  26. Allergic asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory disease with a number of cytokines participating in its pathogenesis and progress. Interleukin (IL)-22, which is derived from lymphocytes, acts on epithelial ce...

    Authors: Jingru Wang, Shengnan Gao, Jingyuan Zhang, Chunxiao Li, Hongwen Li and Jiangtao Lin

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:385

    Content type: Research

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  27. Remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a central mechanism in the progression of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and remodeling of type VI collagen has been suggested to be associated with diseas...

    Authors: Henrik Jessen, Nils Hoyer, Thomas S. Prior, Peder Frederiksen, Sarah R. Rønnow, Morten A. Karsdal, Diana J. Leeming, Elisabeth Bendstrup, Jannie M. B. Sand and Saher B. Shaker

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:382

    Content type: Research

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  28. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    Authors: Jing Ning, Shenyi Jiang, Xiaoxi Li, Yang Wang, Xuhong Deng, Zhiqiang Zhang, Lijie He, Daqing Wang and Youhong Jiang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:381

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:199

  29. Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common cause of atypical community acquired pneumonia (CAP). The diagnostic approach of chlamydial infections remains a challenge. Diagnosis of delayed chlamydial-associated complication...

    Authors: Konstantinos G. Kyriakoulis, Anastasios Kollias, George E. Diakos, Ioannis P. Trontzas, Eleni Fyta, Nikolaos K. Syrigos and Garyphallia Poulakou

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:380

    Content type: Case report

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  30. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in premature infants, characterized by alveolar dysplasia and pulmonary microvascular remodeling. In the present study, we have inve...

    Authors: Yue Zhu, Huimin Ju, Hongyan Lu, Wei Tang, Junying Lu and Qiuxia Wang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:379

    Content type: Research

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  31. Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is one cause of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and can also emerge along with PH. The clinical diagnosis and treatment of OSA in patients with PH are still controversial. The purpos...

    Authors: Lu Yan, Zhihui Zhao, Qing Zhao, Qi Jin, Yi Zhang, Xin Li, Anqi Duan, Qin Luo and Zhihong Liu

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:378

    Content type: Research

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  32. Preventing pulmonary vascular remodeling is a key strategy for pulmonary hypertension (PH). Causes of PH include pulmonary vasoconstriction and inflammation. This study aimed to determine whether cilostazol (C...

    Authors: Toshikazu Ito, Erquan Zhang, Ayaka Omori, Jane Kabwe, Masako Kawai, Junko Maruyama, Amphone Okada, Ayumu Yokochi, Hirofumi Sawada, Yoshihide Mitani and Kazuo Maruyama

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:377

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Cigarettes smoking and IL-17A contribute to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and have synergistical effect on bronchial epithelial cell proliferation. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C-EBPβ) cou...

    Authors: Shuyuan Chu, Libing Ma, Yashan Wu, Xiaoli Zhao, Bo Xiao and Qilu Pan

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:376

    Content type: Research

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  34. Tuberculosis, as a communicable disease, is an ongoing global epidemic that accounts for high burden of global mortality and morbidity. Globally, with an estimated 10 million new cases and around 1.4 million d...

    Authors: Deepak Dhamnetiya, Priyanka Patel, Ravi Prakash Jha, Neha Shri, Mayank Singh and Krittika Bhattacharyya

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:375

    Content type: Research

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  35. Respiratory tract infections (RTI) are the second most frequent diagnosis after Malaria amongst Outpatients in Uganda. Majority are Non pneumonia cough and flu which are self-limiting and often do not require ...

    Authors: Timothy Eria Muwanguzi, Tadele Mekuriya Yadesa and Amon Ganafa Agaba

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:374

    Content type: Research

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  36. Nivolumab is used for the treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). However, immune-related adverse events (irAEs) occur in patients treated with nivolumab. Several studies have reported the correlati...

    Authors: Hiroto Yoneda, Hiroshi Nokihara, Atsushi Mitsuhashi, Ryohiko Ozaki, Yohei Yabuki, Hirokazu Ogino, Kenji Otsuka and Yasuhiko Nishioka

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:373

    Content type: Research

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  37. Today, over 300 million people reside with asthma worldwide and India alone is home for 6% of children and 2% of adults suffering from this chronic disease. A common notion of disparity persists in terms of he...

    Authors: Rashmi Rashmi, Pradeep Kumar, Shobhit Srivastava and T. Muhammad

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:372

    Content type: Research

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  38. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a kind of chronic lung diseases with the characteristics of airway remodeling and airflow obstruction. Magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate (MgIG) is an anti-inflammator...

    Authors: Ye Yang, Lei Huang, Chongchong Tian and Bingjun Qian

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:371

    Content type: Research

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  39. Many patients with polymyositis (PM) or dermatomyositis (DM) have circulating myositis-specific antibodies (MSAs). Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a common manifestation of PM/DM, and it can even precede th...

    Authors: Abhinav K. Misra, Nathan L. Wong, Terrance T. Healey, Edward V. Lally and Barry S. Shea

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:370

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Research into the effects of asthma treatments on the extra-pulmonary symptoms of severe asthma is limited by the absence of a suitable questionnaire. The aim was to create a questionnaire suitable for interve...

    Authors: Giulio de Felice, Michael E. Hyland, Joseph W. Lanario, Yuri Antonacci, Rupert C. Jones and Matthew Masoli

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:369

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Lung cancer associated with cystic airspaces, especially solitary multicystic lesion lung cancer, is a rare disease (a rare imaging performance of non-small cell lung cancer). It is difficult to diagnose owing...

    Authors: Xi Tang, Gang Liu, Xianglan Tan, Chengjun Liu, Jin Xiang and Yu Jiang

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:368

    Content type: Case report

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  42. Hypoxemia frequently occurs during bronchoscopy. High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy may be a feasible alternative to prevent the deterioration of gas exchange during bronchoscopy. With the convenien...

    Authors: Rui Wang, Hai-Chao Li, Xu-Yan Li, Xiao Tang, Hui-Wen Chu, Xue Yuan, Zhao-Hui Tong and Bing Sun

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:367

    Content type: Research

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  43. Sarcoidosis-associated pulmonary hypertension (SAPH) is a prevalent and serious complication of sarcoidosis. No SAPH-specific self-report instruments for assessing SAPH symptoms and their impact on patients ar...

    Authors: Brooke M. Currie, Evan W. Davies, Amélie Beaudet, Larissa Stassek, Leah Kleinman and Robert P. Baughman

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:365

    Content type: Research

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  44. The inflammatory phenotypes of asthma predict the treatment response and prognosis. The phenotype distributions differ depending on the geographical region. This study aimed to assess the distribution of diffe...

    Authors: Bingqing Shi, Wei Li, Hongna Dong, Mengting Xu, Yuqiu Hao and Peng Gao

    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:364

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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