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  1. The association between the dual use of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) and conventional cigarettes (c-cigarette) and spirometry-defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has not been studied tho...

    Authors: Taeyun Kim and Jihun Kang
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:231
  2. Medical thoracoscopy (MT) is recommended in patients with undiagnosed exudative pleural effusion and offers a degree of diagnostic sensitivity for pleural malignancy. However, not all patients who undergo MT r...

    Authors: Yan-Xia Yu, Yuan Yang, Yan-Bing Wu, Xiao-Juan Wang, Li-Li Xu, Zhen Wang, Feng Wang, Zhao-Hui Tong and Huan-Zhong Shi
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:226
  3. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-threatening multiorgan genetic disease, particularly affecting the lungs, where recurrent infections are the main cause of reduced life expectancy. In CF, mutations in the gene e...

    Authors: Mária Budai-Szűcs, Szilvia Berkó, Anita Kovács, Pongsiri Jaikumpun, Rita Ambrus, Adrien Halász, Piroska Szabó-Révész, Erzsébet Csányi and Ákos Zsembery
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:225
  4. To evaluate the accuracy and safety of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) guided biopsy in the diagnosis of radiologically determined pleural based lesions.

    Authors: Wenwen Sun, Yiming Zhou, Cong Yang, Zhengwei Dong, ZheMin Zhang, Yin Wang and Lin Fan
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:224
  5. Ciliated muconodular papillary tumor (CMPT) is an incredibly rare pulmonary tumor. Currently, little is known about CMPT, and it has not yet been classified by the World Health Organization. The clinical manif...

    Authors: Lei Zhao, Conner M. Willson, Nathan T. Givens, Ziwen Zhu, Mark R. Wakefield, Yongsheng Wang, Wanchun Yang and Yujiang Fang
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:223
  6. Endobronchial electrocautery is a common and safe therapeutic endoscopic treatment for malignant airway obstruction. Cerebral arterial air embolism (CAAE) is a rare but potentially fatal complication of endobr...

    Authors: Yu-Ping He, Yuan-Ling Liu, Xing-Lin Gao and Li-Hua Wang
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:222
  7. Currently, there are two antifibrotics used to treat idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF): pirfenidone and nintedanib. Antifibrotics slow disease progression by reducing the annual decline of forced vital capac...

    Authors: Yuzo Suzuki, Kazutaka Mori, Yuya Aono, Masato Kono, Hirotsugu Hasegawa, Koshi Yokomura, Hyogo Naoi, Hironao Hozumi, Masato Karayama, Kazuki Furuhashi, Noriyuki Enomoto, Tomoyuki Fujisawa, Yutaro Nakamura, Naoki Inui, Hidenori Nakamura and Takafumi Suda
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:221
  8. Patients with drug resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) with comorbidities and drug toxicities are difficult to treat. Guidelines recommend such patients to be managed in consultation with a multidisciplinary team o...

    Authors: Joseph Baruch Baluku, Richard Katuramu, Joshua Naloka, Enock Kizito, Martin Nabwana and Felix Bongomin
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:220
  9. It is difficult to distinguish between multicentric Castleman’s disease (MCD) and IgG4-related lung disease (IgG4-LD), an IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) in the lung.

    Authors: Yasuhiro Kinugawa, Takeshi Uehara, Mai Iwaya, Shiho Asaka, Shota Kobayashi, Tomoyuki Nakajima, Masamichi Komatsu, Masanori Yasuo, Hiroshi Yamamoto and Hiroyoshi Ota
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:219
  10. Although antifibrotic drugs, including nintedanib and pirfenidone, slow the progression of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), there is little data about the timing of start of antifibrotic treatment in real-...

    Authors: Keishi Sugino, Hirotaka Ono, Natsumi Watanabe, Masahiro Ando, Eiyasu Tsuboi, Sakae Homma and Kazuma Kishi
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:218
  11. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a multifactorial clinical condition, characterized by chronic progressive (or worsening) respiratory symptoms, structural pulmonary abnormalities, and impaired l...

    Authors: Nikolaos Tzanakis, Nikolaos Koulouris, Katerina Dimakou, Konstantinos Gourgoulianis, Epameinondas Kosmas, Georgia Chasapidou, Athanasios Konstantinidis, Christos Kyriakopoulos, Theodoros Kontakiotis, Aggeliki Rapti, Mina Gaga, Konstantinos Kalafatakis and Konstantinos Kostikas
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:216
  12. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disease that causes obstructed airways and abnormal inflammatory responses in the lungs. Early growth response 3 (EGR3) has been revealed to play a vital role in ...

    Authors: Panfeng Chen, Ping Jiang, Jianing Chen, Yang Yang and Xiumei Guo
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:215
  13. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complicated multi-factor, multi-gene disease. Here, we aimed to assess the association of genetic polymorphisms in LINC01414/ LINC00824 and interactions with COPD...

    Authors: Xiaoman Zhou, Yunjun Zhang, Yutian Zhang, Quanni Li, Mei Lin, Yixiu Yang, Yufei Xie and Yipeng Ding
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:213
  14. Pseudomonas fluorescens (P. fluorescens) has been detected in respiratory samples from patients. However, no previous reports have been published about these P. fluorescens cultures from lung tissues.

    Authors: Xiao Liu, Lei Xiang, Yunhong Yin, Hao Li, Dedong Ma and Yiqing Qu
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:212
  15. As a typical “united airway” disease, asthma-chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) overlap has recently drawn more attention. Bronchiectasis is a heterogeneous disease related to a variety of diseases. Whether bronchie...

    Authors: Haiyan Sheng, Xiujuan Yao, Xiangdong Wang, Yuhong Wang, Xiaofang Liu and Luo Zhang
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:211
  16. In adults with primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP), contralateral recurrence occurs in about 25–28% when there are asymptomatic blebs. How to treat contralateral recurrence of PSP in pediatric populations r...

    Authors: Chieh-Ni Kao, Shah-Hwa Chou, Ming-Ju Tsai, Po-Chih Chang and Yu-Wei Liu
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:210
  17. Clinical practice guidelines and re-imbursement schedules vary in the recommended timing of FDG-PET/CT in the diagnostic evaluation of suspected or confirmed lung cancer. The aim was to estimate the probabilit...

    Authors: Anne Johnson, Richard Norman, Francesco Piccolo and David Manners
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:209
  18. Molecular targeted therapy for non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is restricted due to resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). This study evaluated the effec...

    Authors: Ge-Ping Qu, Min Shi, Dan Wang, Jiong-He Wu, Peng Wang, Mei-Liang Gong and Zhi-Jian Zhang
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:208
  19. The leprosy-tuberculosis (TB) co-infection is rarely reported in recent times. However, this dual comorbidity is associated with high mortality and major morbidity. Unrecognised leprosy-TB co-infection may pre...

    Authors: Josiah T. Masuka, Zamambo Mkhize, Somasundram Pillay and Anisa Mosam
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:207
  20. Tuberculosis remains a serious public health concern globally. The enormous social, economic, and health impacts of the diseases are attributed to the lack of updated data on the prevalence, geospatial distrib...

    Authors: Ketema Tafess, Teresa Kisi Beyen, Sisay Girma, Asnakech Girma and Gilman Siu
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:206
  21. To assess mortality rate (MR) and standardized mortality rate (SMR) of rheumatoid arthritis-related interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD) patients and to evaluate the role of radiographic patterns in mortality.

    Authors: Maria A. Nieto, Maria J. Rodriguez-Nieto, Olga Sanchez-Pernaute, Fredeswinda Romero-Bueno, Leticia Leon, Cristina Vadillo, Dalifer D. Freites-Nuñez, Juan A. Jover, Jose L. Álvarez-Sala and Lydia Abasolo
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:205
  22. Patients with connective tissue disease, such as dermatomyositis (DM), and positive anti-TIF1γ self-antibodies are commonly diagnosed with malignant tumors as a comorbidity. The relationship between anti-TIF1γ...

    Authors: Jiao-jiao Xie, Bin Li, Rui Xu, Xian-zhi Du and Jin-zhi He
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:204
  23. Invasive and non-invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) have been combined as sequential MV in the treatment of respiratory failure. However, the effectiveness remains unclear. Here, we performed a randomized co...

    Authors: Nai-Min Kang, Nan Zhang, Bao-Jian Luo, En-Dong Wu, Jian-Quan Shi, Liang Li and Li Jiang
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:203
  24. Mechanical power (MP) of artificial ventilation, the energy transferred to the respiratory system, is a chief determinant of adequate oxygenation and decarboxylation. Calculated MP, the product of applied airw...

    Authors: Alessandro Ghiani, Joanna Paderewska, Swenja Walcher and Claus Neurohr
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:202
  25. Sepsis is a complicated disease with systemic inflammation or organ dysfunction, and it is the leading cause of acute lung injury (ALI). Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have played important roles in the pathog...

    Authors: Bing Wang, Qi Sun, Wen Ye, Lianghai Li and Ping Jin
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:200
  26. Glypican 3 (GPC3) is a heparin sulphate proteoglycan whose expression is associated with several malignancies. However, its expression in non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is limited and ambiguous. This st...

    Authors: Jing Ning, Shenyi Jiang, Xiaoxi Li, Yang Wang, Xuhong Deng, Zhiqiang Zhang, Lijie He, Daqing Wang and Youhong Jiang
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:199

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:381

  27. Patients undergoing bronchoscopy in spontaneous breathing are prone to hypoxaemia and hypercapnia. Sedation, airway obstruction, and lung diseases impair respiration and gas exchange. The restitution of normal...

    Authors: Daniel Strohleit, Thomas Galetin, Nils Kosse, Alberto Lopez-Pastorini and Erich Stoelben
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:198
  28. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a disease characterized by arteriovenous malformations in the skin and mucous membranes. We enrolled a large pedigree comprising 32 living members, and screened f...

    Authors: Yu Xu, Yong-Biao Zhang, Li-Jun Liang, Jia-Li Tian, Jin-Ming Lin, Pan-Pan Wang, Rong-Hui Li, Ming-Liang Gu and Zhan-Cheng Gao
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:197
  29. Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is an important diagnosis in critical care. VAP research is complicated by the lack of agreed diagnostic criteria and reference standard test criteria. Our aim was to revi...

    Authors: Basem Al-Omari, Peter McMeekin, A. Joy Allen, Ahsan R. Akram, Sara Graziadio, Jana Suklan, William S. Jones, B. Clare Lendrem, Amanda Winter, Milo Cullinan, Joanne Gray, Kevin Dhaliwal, Timothy S. Walsh and Thomas H. Craven
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:196
  30. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Taotao Liu, Qinyu Zhao and Bin Du
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:194

    The original article was published in BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:160

  31. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Tang-Hsiu Huang, Chin-Wei Kuo, Chian-Wei Chen, Yau-Lin Tseng, Chao-Liang Wu and Sheng-Hsiang Lin
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:193

    The original article was published in BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:165

  32. The overweight/obese population (evaluated by a body mass index, BMI) represents a global health problem and contributes to the development of various chronic diseases. In this epidemiological study we evaluat...

    Authors: D. Nugmanova, Y. Feshchenko, L. Iashyna, M. Polianska, K. Malynovska, I. Stafeyeva, J. Makarova and A. Vasylyev
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:192
  33. The echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like-4 anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK) fusion gene was identified in a subset of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. They responded positively to AL...

    Authors: Ying Li, Yongwen Li, Hongbing Zhang, Ruifeng Shi, Zihe Zhang, Hongyu Liu and Jun Chen
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:190
  34. Different from current cognition, our study demonstrated that adrenergic receptors agonist phenylephrine significantly relaxed isolated pulmonary artery but constricted pulmonary veins. Through comparing diffe...

    Authors: Li-mei Liao, Li Zhou, Chen-ran Wang, Jian-ying Hu, Yao-jun Lu and Shaoqiang Huang
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:189
  35. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is a degenerative interstitial lung disease with both a poor prognosis and quality of life once the diagnosis is made. In the last decade many features of the disease have b...

    Authors: Donato Lacedonia, Giulia Scioscia, Piera Soccio, Massimo Conese, Lucia Catucci, Grazia P. Palladino, Filomena Simone, Carla M. I. Quarato, Sante Di Gioia, Roberto Rana, Francesco Sollitto and Maria P. Foschino-Barbaro
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:188
  36. Previous studies suggest that transient receptor potential (TRP) channels and neurogenic inflammation may be involved in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF)-related high cough sensitivity, although the details...

    Authors: Mengyue Guan, Sun Ying and Yuguang Wang
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:187
  37. Acute exacerbation (AE) of interstitial pneumonia (IP) is the most fatal complication after lung resection for lung cancer. To improve the prognosis of lung cancer with IP, the risk factors of AE of IP after l...

    Authors: Atsushi Kagimoto, Yasuhiro Tsutani, Kei Kushitani, Takahiro Kambara, Takahiro Mimae, Yoshihiro Miyata, Yukio Takeshima and Morihito Okada
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:186
  38. It is not well-known if diagnosing and treating sleep breathing disorders among individuals with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) improves health outcomes. We evaluated the association between receipt of la...

    Authors: Nicholas T. Vozoris, Andrew S. Wilton, Peter C. Austin, Tetyana Kendzerska, Clodagh M. Ryan and Andrea S. Gershon
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:185
  39. Current interstitial lung disease (ILD) diagnostic guidelines assess criteria across clinical, radiologic and pathologic domains. Significant interobserver variation in histopathologic evaluation has previousl...

    Authors: Robert Camp, Maxwell L. Smith, Brandon T. Larsen, Anja C. Roden, Carol Farver, Andre L. Moreira, Richard Attanoos, Raghavendra Pillappa, Irene Sansano, Alexandre Todorovic Fabro and Robert J. Homer
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:184
  40. Heterogeneity in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has led to many statistically negative clinical trials. Etiology is considered an important source of pathogenesis heterogeneity in ARDS but previous...

    Authors: Sheng-Yuan Ruan, Chun-Ta Huang, Ying-Chun Chien, Chun-Kai Huang, Jung-Yien Chien, Lu-Cheng Kuo, Ping-Hung Kuo, Shih-Chi Ku and Huey-Dong Wu
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:183
  41. Pneumothorax is one complication of transbronchial biopsy (TBB) using endobronchial ultrasonography with a guide sheath (EBUS-GS-TBB). We sought to clarify the risk factors for pneumothorax after EBUS-GS-TBB u...

    Authors: Yusuke Gotoh, Teppei Yamaguchi, Hiroshi Yatsuya, Aki Ikeda, Takuya Okamura, Yosuke Sakakibara, Takuma Ina, Yuri Maeda, Mariko Hirochi, Hisashi Kako, Yasuhiro Goto, Sumito Isogai, Naoki Yamamoto, Masashi Kondo and Kazuyoshi Imaizumi
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:181
  42. Although depression is a common comorbidity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the role of sex remains unexplored. We evaluated sex differences of risk factors of depressive symptoms in adults wi...

    Authors: Ji Soo Choi, Se Hyun Kwak, Nak-Hoon Son, Jae Won Oh, San Lee and Eun Hye Lee
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:180
  43. Worldwide, pneumonia is the third leading cause of death in under 5 years children. Ethiopia is ranked 4th out of 15 countries having the highest burdens of the death rate among under-five children due to pneu...

    Authors: Muluken Genetu Chanie, Mequannent Sharew Melaku, Melaku Yalew, Mastewal Arefaynie, Gedamnesh Bitew, Erkihun Tadesse Amsalu, Bereket Kefale, Amare Muche, Zinabu Fentaw, Reta Dewau, Bezawit Adane, Yitayish Damtie, Wolde Melese Ayele, Gojjam Eshetie Ewunetie and Metadel Adane
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:179
  44. The excess adiposity, even in the absence of diseases, is responsible for a decline in pulmonary function, which is considered a predictor of mortality and a risk factor for diseases in several epidemiological...

    Authors: Caren Ishikawa, Marco Antonio Barbieri, Heloisa Bettiol, Gabriel Bazo, Alexandre A. Ferraro and Elcio Oliveira Vianna
    Citation: BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2021 21:178

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